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Found 17 results

  1. "How the GOP Health Care Failed Without a Vote" by Veronica Stracqualursi and Adam Kelsey on abcnews.go.com This is a historical thread about an issue of significant national importance; not a partisan thread, except whatever partisanship exists by its very nature. Please reply thoughtfully - it's perfectly fine to discuss the bills themselves, their contents, the implications of this, etc. For example, if someone wanted to draw a parallel between Trump saying "The Democrats now own ObamaCare" and, in a reverse situation, a Democratic President - who just retracted a bill because (s)he couldn't get the votes - saying "The Republicans now own Climate Change," or, "The Republicans now own Mass Shootings," and back up the assertion up with some substance, that would be perfectly legitimate. Likewise, President Trump asserting that he acted as a "team player," yet he didn't get a single Democratic vote. What, exactly, did he do to show that he was acting as a "team player?" And, on which team was he playing? See, "teams" involve an "us vs. them" mentality, which is inherently partisan. Larry Bird was the ultimate team player, and you can bet that in every single game he played, he wanted to crush the life out of his opponents - especially Magic Johnson and the Lakers. So, can anyone produce some evidence that President Trump was representing "Team USA" as opposed to just "The Republican Team?" If so, please lay it out for us - I'm not familiar with the contents of the bills. Let's keep this discussion on a high level - there's too much fighting and name-calling on the internet, and I believe we can do it. And if not, we at least have this marker as a historical record of an important news event.
  2. This is a fact-based, apolitical list of the United States Senate and its Elections - I will be filling this in backwards over time. There are three "classes" of Senators, each having elections every six years (assuming there are no early vacancies). Class 1 (33 Senators) last had an election in 2012, Class 2 (33 Senators) in 2014, and Class 3 (34 Senators) in 2010. The 114th U.S. Congress begins on Jan 3, 2015. If this list is ever completed, it will go backwards in time to 1789. Any candidate getting more than 10% of the vote is named. Any election with each opponent receiving less than 10% is deemed unopposed. Former Senators with at least 30 years of service (equivalent to five full terms) are noted with the number of years served by their Wikipedia link. With few exceptions, the top two names on the left side, for each state, are generally the incumbent Senators (assuming the new ones have been sworn in). Also by definition, anyone listed on the right side with a Wikipedia link is a former Senator who has completed his or her time in office. d = defeated (general or primary election), r = retired (or chose not to run again), u = unopposed, v = vacated (before the term ended), a = appointed, * = special election 2016 Lisa Murkowski d Joe Miller, Margaret Stock, & Ray Metcalfe 2014 Dan Sullivan (d Mark Begich Jan 3, 2009 - Jan 3, 2015) 2010 Lisa Murkowski d Joe Miller & Scott McAdams 2008 Mark Begich (d Ted Stevens Dec 24, 1968 - Jan 3, 2009 - 40) 2004 Lisa Murkowski d Tony Knowles (a Lisa Murkowski, Dec 20, 2002, v Frank Murkowski Jan 3, 1981 - Dec 2, 2002) 2002 Ted Stevens d Frank J Vondersaar 1998 Frank Murkowski d Joe Sonneman 1996 Ted Stevens d Jeff Whittaker 1992 Frank Murkowski d Tony Smith 1990 Ted Stevens d Michael Beasley 1986 Frank Murkowski d Glenn Olds 1984 Ted Stevens d John E. Havelock 1980 Frank Murkowski d Clark Gruening (d Mike Gravel, Jan 3, 1969 - Jan 3, 1981) AL* 2017 Doug Jones d Roy Moore (da Luther Strange, Feb 9, 2017 - Jan 3, 2018, v Jeff Sessions Jan 3, 1997 - Feb 8, 2017) 2016 Richard Shelby d Ron Crumpton 2014 Jeff Sessions u 2010 Richard Shelby d William G. Barnes 2008 Jeff Sessions d Vivian Davis Figures 2004 Richard Shelby d Wayne Sowell 2002 Jeff Sessions d Susan Parker 1998 Richard Shelby d Clayton Suddith 1996 Jeff Sessions d Roger Bedford (r Howell Heflin Jan 3, 1979 - Jan 3, 1997) 1992 Richard Shelby d Richard Sellers 1990 Howell Heflin d William J. Cabaniss 1986 Richard Shelby (d Jeremiah Denton Jan 3, 1981 - Jan 3, 1987) 1984 Howell Heflin d Albert L. Smith, Jr. AR 2016 John Boozman d Conner Eldridge 2014 Tom Cotton (d Mark Pryor Jan 3, 2003 - Jan 3, 2015) 2010 John Boozman (d Blanche Lincoln Jan 3, 1999 - Jan 3, 2011) 2008 Mark Pryor d Rebekah Kennedy 2004 Blanche Lincoln d Jim Holt 2002 Mark Pryor (d Tim Hutchinson Jan 3, 1997 - Jan 3, 2003) 1998 Blanche Lincoln d Fay Boozman (r Dale Bumpers Jan 3, 1975 - Jan 3, 1999) 1996 Tim Hutchinson d Winston Bryant (r David Pryor Jan 3, 1979 - Jan 3, 1997) 1992 Dale Bumpers d Mike Huckabee 1990 David Pryor u 1986 Dale Bumpers d Asa Hutchinson 1984 David Pryor d Ed Bethune AZ 2022 (a Jon Kyl Sep 5, 2018 - v John McCain Jan 3, 1987 - Aug 25, 2018 - 31) 2018 Kyrsten Sinema d Martha McSally (r Jeff Flake, Jan 3, 2013 - Jan 3, 2019) 2016 John McCain d Ann Kirkpatrick 2012 Jeff Flake d Richard Carmona (r Jon Kyl, Jan 3, 1995 - Jan 3, 2013) 2010 John McCain d Rodney Glassman 2006 Jon Kyl d Jim Pederson 2004 John McCain d Stuart Stakey 2000 Jon Kyl u 1998 John McCain d Ed Ranger 1994 Jon Kyl d Sam Coppersmith (r Dennis Deconcini Jan 3, 1977 - Jan 3, 1995) 1992 John McCain d Clair Sargent 1988 Dennis Deconcini d Keith DeGreen 1986 John McCain d Richard Kimball (r Barry Goldwater Jan 3, 1969 - Jan 3, 1987 - 30) 1982 Dennis Deconcini d Pete Dunn CA 2018 Dianne Feinstein d Kevin de León 2016 Kamala Harris d Loretta Sanchez (r Barbara Boxer Jan 3, 1993 - Jan 3, 2017) 2012 Dianne Feinstein d Elizabeth Emken 2010 Barbara Boxer d Carly Fiorina 2006 Dianne Feinstein d Dick Mountjoy 2004 Barbara Boxer d Bill Jones 2000 Dianne Feinstein d Tom Campbell 1998 Barbara Boxer d Matt Fong 1994 Dianne Feinstein d Michael Huffington 1992 Barbara Boxer d Bruce Herschensohn (r Alan Cranston Jan 3, 1969 - Jan 3, 1993) *1992 Dianne Feinstein (da John F Seymour Jan 10, 1991 - Nov 3, 1992, v Pete Wilson Jan 3, 1983 - Jan 7, 1991) 1988 Pete Wilson d Leo T. McCarthy 1986 Alan Cranston d Ed Zschau| 1982 Pete Wilson d Jerry Brown (r S.I. Hiyakawa Jan 2, 1977 - Jan 3, 1983) CO 2016 Michael Bennet d Darryl Glenn 2014 Cory Gardner (d Mark Udall Jan 3, 2009 - Jan 3, 2015) *2010 Michael Bennet d Ken Buck (a Michael Bennet Jan 21, 2009, v Ken Salazar Jan 3, 2005 - Jan 20, 2009) 2008 Mark Udall d Bob Schaffer (r Wayne Allard Jan 3, 1997 - Jan 3, 2009) 2004 Ken Salazar d Pete Coors (r Ben Nighthorse Campbell Jan 3, 1993 - Jan 3, 2005) 2002 Wayne Allard d Tom Strickland 1998 Ben Nighthorse Campbell d Dottie Lamm 1996 Wayne Allard d Tom Strickland (r Hank Brown Jan 3, 1991 - Jan 3, 1997) 1992 Ben Nighthorse Campbell d Terry Considine (r Tim Wirth Jan 3, 1987 - Jan 3, 1993) 1990 Hank Brown d Josie Heath (r William L. Armstrong Jan 3, 1979 - Jan 3, 1991) 1986 Tim Werth d Ken Kramer (r Gary Hart Jan 3, 1975 - Jan 3, 1987) 1984 William L. Armstrong d Nancy E. Dick CT 2018 Chris Murphy d Matthew Corey 2016 Richard Blumenthal d Dan Carter 2012 Chris Murphy d Linda McMahon (r Joe Lieberman Jan 3, 1989 - Jan 3, 2013) 2010 Richard Blumenthal d Linda McMahon (r Chris Dodd Jan 3, 1981 - Jan 3, 2011 - 30) 2006 Joe Lieberman d Ned Lamont 2004 Chris Dodd d Jack Orchulli 2000 Joe Lieberman d Philip Giordano 1998 Chris Dodd d Gary Franks 1994 Joe Lieberman d Gary Labriola 1992 Chris Dodd d Brook Johnson 1988 Joe Lieberman (d Lowell P. Weicker, Jr. Jan 3, 1971 - Jan 3, 1989) 1986 Chris Dodd d Roger W. Eddy 1982 Lowell P. Weicker, Jr. d Toby Moffett DE 2018 Tom Carper d Robert Arlett 2014 Chris Coons d Kevin Wade 2012 Tom Carper d Kevin Wade *2010 Chris Coons d Christine O'Donnell (ra Ted Kaufman Jan 16, 2009 - Nov 15, 2010, v Joe Biden Jan 3, 1973 - Jan 15, 2009 - 36) 2008 Joe Biden d Christine O'Donnell 2006 Tom Carper d Jan Ting 2002 Joe Biden d Raymond J. Clatworthy 2000 Tom Carper (d William V. Roth, Jr. Jan 3, 1971 - Jan 3, 2001 - 30) 1996 Joe Biden d Raymond J. Clatworthy 1994 William V. Roth, Jr. d Charles Oberly 1990 Joe Biden d M. Jane Brady 1988 William V. Roth, Jr. d Shien Biau Woo 1984 Joe Biden d John M. Burris 1982 William V. Roth, Jr. d David N. Levinson FL 2018 Rick Scott (d Bill Nelson Jan 3, 2001 - Jan 3, 2019) 2016 Marco Rubio d Patrick Murphy 2012 Bill Nelson d Connie Mack 2010 Marco Rubio d Charlie Crist & Kendrick Meek (ra George LeMieux Sep 10, 2009 - Jan 3, 2011, v Mel Martinez Jan 3, 2005 - Sep 9, 2009) 2006 Bill Nelson d Katherine Harris 2004 Mel Martinez d Betty Castor (r Bob Graham Jan 3, 1987 - Jan 3, 2005) 2000 Bill Nelson d Bill McCollum (r Connie Mack III Jan 3, 1989 - Jan 3, 2001) 1998 Bob Graham d Charlie Crist 1994 Connie Mack III d Hugh Rodham 1992 Bob Graham d James W. Grant 1988 Connie Mack III d Buddy Mackay (r Lawton Chiles Jan 3, 1971 - Jan 3, 1989) 1986 Bob Graham (d Paula Hawkins Jan 3, 1981 - Jan, 3, 1987) 1982 Lawton Chiles d Van B. Poole GA 2016 Johnny Isakson d Jim Barksdale 2014 David Purdue d Michelle Nunn (r Saxby Chambliss Jan 3, 2003 - Jan 3, 2015) 2010 Johnny Isakson d Michael Thurmond 2008 Saxby Chambliss d Jim Martin 2004 Johnny Isakson d Denise Majette (r Zell Miller Jul 27, 2000 - Jan 3, 2005) 2002 Saxby Chambliss (d Max Cleland Jan 3, 1997 - Jan 3, 2003) *2000 Zell Miller d Mack Mattingly (a Zell Miller Jul 27, 2000, v Paul Coverdell Jan 3, 1993 - Jul 18, 2000) 1998 Paul Coverdell d Michael Coles 1996 Max Cleland d Guy Milner (r Sam Nunn Nov 8, 1972 - Jan 3, 1997) 1992 Paul Coverdell (d Wyche Fowler Jan 3, 1987 - Jan 3, 1993) 1990 Sam Nunn u 1986 Wyche Fowler (d Mack Mattingly Jan 3, 1981 - Jan 3, 1987) 1984 Sam Nunn d John M. Hicks HI 2018 Mazie Hirono d Ron Curtis 2016 Brian Schatz d John Carroll *2014 Brian Schatz d Campbell Cavasso (a Brian Schatz Dec 26, 2012, v Daniel Inouye Jan 3, 1963 - Dec 17, 2012 - 49) 2012 Mazie Hirono d Linda LIngle (r Daniel Akaka May 16, 1990 - Jan 3, 2013) 2010 Daniel Inouye d Campbell Cavasso 2006 Daniel Akaka d Cynthia Thielen 2004 Daniel Inouye d Campbell Cavasso 2000 Daniel Akaka d John S. Carroll 1998 Daniel Inouye d Crystal Young 1994 Daniel Akaka d Maria Hustace 1992 Daniel Inouye d Rick Reed & Linda Martin *1990 Daniel Akaka d Pat Saiki (a Daniel Akaka May 16, 1990, v Spark Matsunaga Jan 3, 1977 - Apr 15, 1990) 1988 Spark Matsunaga d Maria M. Hustace 1986 Daniel Inouye d Frank Hutchinson 1982 Spark Matsunaga d Clarence J. Brown IA 2016 Chuck Grassley d Patty Judge 2014 Joni Earnst d Bruce Braley (r Tom Harkin Jan 3, 1985 - Jan 3, 2015 - 30) 2010 Chuck Grassley d Roxanne Conlin 2008 Tom Harkin d Christopher Reed 2004 Chuck Grassley d Marvin Small 2002 Tom Harkin d Greg Ganske 1998 Chuck Grassley d David Osterberg 1996 Tom Harkin d Jim Ross Lightfoot 1992 Chuck Grassley d Jean Hall Lloyd-Jones 1990 Tom Harkin d Tom Tauke 1986 Chuck Grassley d John P. Roehrick 1984 Tom Harkin (d Roger Jepsen Jan 3, 1979 - Jan 3, 1985) ID 2016 Mike Crapo d Jerry Sturgill 2014 Jim Risch d Nels Mitchell 2010 Mike Crapo d Tom Sullivan 2008 Jim Risch d Larry LaRocco (r Larry Craig Jan 3, 1991 - Jan 3, 2009) 2004 Mike Crapo u 2002 Larry Craig d Alan Blinken 1998 Mike Crapo d Bill Mauk (r Dirk Kempthorne Jan 3, 1993 - Jan 3, 1999) 1996 Larry Craig d Walt Minnick 1992 Dirk Kempthorne d Richard H. Stallings (r Steve Symms Jan 3, 1981 - Jan 3, 1993) 1990 Larry Craig d Ron J. Twilegar (r James A. McClure Jan 3, 1973 - Jan 3, 1991) 1986 Steve Symms d John V. Evans 1984 James A. McClure d Peter M. Bush IL 2016 Tammy Duckworth (d Mark Kirk Nov 29, 2010 - Jan 3, 2017) 2014 Richard Durbin d Jim Oberweis *2010 Mark Kirk d Alexi Giannoulias (ra Roland Burris Jan 12, 2009 - Nov 29, 2010, v Barack Obama Jan 4, 2005 - Nov 16, 2008) 2008 Richard Durbin d Steve Sauerberg 2004 Barack Obama d Alan Keyes (r Peter Fitzgerald Jan 6, 1999 - Jan 3, 2005) 2002 Richard Durbin d Jim Durkin 1998 Peter Fitzgerald (d Carol Moseley-Braun Jan 3, 1993 - Jan 3, 1999) 1996 Richard Durbin d Al Salvi (r Paul Simon Jan 3, 1985 - Jan 3, 1997) 1992 Carol Moseley-Braun d Richard S. Williamson (d Alan J. Dixon Jan 3, 1981 - Jan 3, 1993) 1990 Paul Simon d Lynn Morley Martin 1986 Alan J. Dixon d Judy Koehler 1984 Paul Simon (d Charles H. Percy Jan 3, 1967 - Jan 3, 1985) IN 2018 Mike Braun (d Joe Donnelly Jan 3, 2013 - Jan 3, 2019) 2016 Todd Young d Evan Bayh (r Dan Coats Jan 3, 2011 - Jan 3, 2017) 2012 Joe Donnelly d. Richard Mourdock (d Richard Lugar Jan 3, 1977 - Jan 3, 2013 - 36) 2010 Dan Coats d Brad Ellsworth (r Evan Bayh Jan 3, 1999 - Jan 3, 2011) 2006 Richard Lugar d Steve Osborn 2004 Evan Bayh d Marvin Scott 2000 Richard Lugar d David Johnson 1998 Evan Bayh d Paul Helmke (r Dan Coats Jan 3, 1989 - Jan 3, 1999) 1994 Richard Lugar d Jim Jontz 1992 Dan Coats d Joseph Hogsett *1990 Dan Coats d Baron Hill (a Dan Coats Jan 3, 1989, v Dan Quayle Jan 3, 1981 - Jan 3, 1989) 1988 Richard Lugar d Jack Wickes 1986 Dan Quayle d Jill L. Long 1982 Richard Lugar d Floyd Fithian KS 2016 Jerry Moran d Patrick Wiesner 2014 Pat Roberts d Greg Orman 2010 Jerry Moran d Lisa Johnston (r Sam Brownback Nov 7, 1996 - Jan 3, 2011) 2008 Pat Roberts d Jim Slattery 2004 Sam Brownback d Lee Jones 2002 Pat Roberts u 1998 Sam Brownback d Paul Feleciano, Jr. 1996 Pat Roberts d Sally Thompson (r Nancy Landon Kassebaum Dec 23, 1978 - Jan 3, 1997) *1996 Sam Brownback d Jill Docking (da Sheila Frahm Jun 11, 1996 - Nov 5, 1996, v Bob Dole Jan 3, 1969 - Jun 11, 1996) 1992 Bob Dole d Gloria O'Dell 1990 Nancy Landon Kassebaum d Dick Williams 1986 Bob Dole d Guy MacDonald 1984 Nancy Landon Kassebaum d James R. Maher KY 2016 Rand Paul d Jim Gray 2014 Mitch McConnell d Alison Lundergan Grimes 2010 Rand Paul d Jack Conway (r Jim Bunning Jan 3, 1999 - Jan 3, 2011) 2008 Mitch McConnell d Bruce Lunsford 2004 Jim Bunning d Daniel Mongiardo 2002 Mitch McConnell d Lois Combs Weinberg 1998 Jim Bunning d Scotty Baesler (r Wendell Ford Dec 28, 1974 - Jan 3, 1999) 1996 Mitch McConnell d Steve Beshear 1992 Wendell Ford d David Williams 1990 Mitch McConnell d Harvey I. Sloane 1986 Wendell Ford d Jackson M. Andrews 1984 Mitch McConnell (d Walter Dee Huddleston Jan 3, 1973 - Jan 3, 1985) LA *2016 Runoff Election Dec 10, 2016 (No candidate got 50% in general election) 2014 Bill Cassidy (d Mary Landrieu Jan 3, 1997 - Jan 3, 2015) & Rob Maness 2010 David Vitter d Charles Melancon 2008 Mary Landrieu d John N. Kennedy 2004 David Vittner d Chris John & John N. Kennedy (r John Breaux Jan 3, 1987 - Jan 3, 2005) 2002 Mary Landrieu d Suzanne Haik Terrell 1998 John Breaux d Jim Donelon 1996 Mary Landrieu d Woody Jenkins (r J. Bennett Johnston, Jr. Nov 14, 1972 - Jan 3, 1997) 1992 John Breaux u 1990 J. Bennett Johnston Jr. d David Duke 1986 John Breaux d Henson Moore (r Russell B. Long Dec 31, 1948 - Jan 3, 1987 - 38) 1984 J. Bennett Johnston Jr. u MA 2018 Elizabeth Warren d Geoff Diehl 2014 Ed Markey d Brian Herr *2013 Ed Markey d Gabriel E. Gomez (ra Mo Cowan Feb 1, 2013 - July 16, 2013, v John Kerry Jan 2, 1985 - Feb 1, 2013) 2012 Elizabeth Warren (d Scott Brown Feb 4, 2010 - Jan 3, 2013) *2010 Scott Brown d Martha Coakley (ra Paul G. Kirk Sep 24, 2009 - Feb 4, 2010, v Ted Kennedy Nov 7, 1962 - Aug 25, 2009 - 46) 2008 John Kerry d Jeff Beatty 2006 Ted Kennedy d Kenneth Chase 2002 John Kerry d Michael E. Cloud 2000 Ted Kennedy d Jack E. Robinson III & Carla Howell 1996 John Kerry d William Weld 1994 Ted Kennedy d Mitt Romney 1990 John Kerry d Jim Rappaport 1988 Ted Kennedy d Joseph D. Malone 1984 John Kerry d Ray Shamie (r Paul Tsongas Jan 3, 1979 - Jan 2, 1985) 1982 Ted Kennedy d Ray Shamie MD 2018 Ben Cardin d Tony Campbell 2016 Chris Van Hollen d Kathy Szeliga (r Barbara Mikulski Jan 3, 1987 - Jan 3, 2017 - 30) 2012 Ben Cardin d Dan Bongino & Rob Sobhani 2010 Barbara Mikulski d Eric Wargotz 2006 Ben Cardin d Michael Steele (r Paul Sarbanes Jan 3, 1977 - Jan 3, 2007 - 30) 2004 Barbara Mikulski d E.J. Pipkin 2000 Paul Sarbanes d Paul Rappaport 1998 Barbara Mikulski d Ross Pierpoint 1994 Paul Sarbanes d Bill Brock 1992 Barbara Mikulski d Alan Keyes 1988 Paul Sarbanes d Alan Keyes 1986 Barbara Mikulski d Linda Chavez (r Charles Mathias Jan 3, 1969 - Jan 3, 1987) 1982 Paul Sarbanes d Lawrence J. Hogan, Jr. ME 2018 Angus King de Eric Brakey & Zack Ringelstein 2014 Susan Collins d Shenna Bellows 2012 Angus King d Charles Summers & Cynthia DIll (r Olympia Snowe Jan 3, 1995 - Jan 3, 2013) 2008 Susan Collins d Tom Allen 2006 Olympia Snowe d Jean Hay Bright 2002 Susan Collins d Chellie Pingree 2000 Olympia Snowe d Mark Lawrence 1996 Susan Collins d Joseph Brennan (r William Cohen Jan 3, 1979 - Jan 3, 1997) 1994 Olympia Snowe d Thomas Andrews (r George Mitchell May 17, 1980 - Jan 3, 1995) 1990 William Cohen d Neil Rolde 1988 George Mitchell d Jasper S. Wyman 1984 William Cohen d Libby Mitchell 1982 George Mitchel d David F. Emery MI 2018 Debbie Stabenow d John James 2014 Gary Peters d Terri Lynn Land (r Carl Levin Jan 3, 1979 - Jan 3, 2015 - 36) 2012 Debbie Stabenow d Pete Hoekstra 2008 Carl Levin d Jack Hoogendyk 2006 Debbie Stabenow d Mike Bouchard 2002 Carl Levin d Andrew Raczkowski 2000 Debbie Stabenow (d Spencer Abraham Jan 3, 1995 - Jan 3, 2001) 1996 Carl Levin d Ronna Romney 1994 Spencer Abraham d Bob Carr (r Donald W. Riegle, Jr. Dec 30, 1976 - Jan 3, 1995) 1990 Carl Levin d Bill Schuette 1988 Donald W. Riegle, Jr. d James Whitney Dunn 1984 Carl Levin d Jack R, Lousma 1982 Donald W. Riegle, Jr. d Philip Ruppe MN 2018 Amy Klobuchar d Jim Newberger *2018 Tina Smith d Karin Housley 2014 Al Franken d Mike McFadden (a Tina Smith Jan 3, 2018, v Al Franken (Jul 7, 2009 - Jan 2 2018) 2012 Amy Klobuchar d Kurt Bills 2008 Al Franken (d Norm Coleman Jan 3, 2003 - Jan 3, 2009) & Dean Barkley 2006 Amy Klobuchar d Mike Kennedy (r Mark Dayton Jan 3, 2001 - Jan 3, 2007) 2002 Norm Coleman d Walter Mondale (ra Dean Barkley Nov 5, 2002 - Jan 3, 2003, v Paul Wellstone Jan 3, 1991 - Oct 25, 2002) 2000 Mark Dayton (d Rod Grams Jan 3, 1995 - Jan 3, 2001) 1996 Paul Wellstone d Rudy Boschwitz 1994 Rod Grams d Ann Wynia (r David Durenberger Nov 8, 1978 - Jan 3, 1995) 1990 Paul Wellstone (d Rudy Boschwitz Dec 30, 1978 - Jan 3, 1991) 1988 David Durenberger d Skip Humphrey 1984 Rudy Boschwitz d Joan Growe 1982 David Durenberger d Mark Dayton MO 2018 Josh Hawley (d Claire McCaskill Jan 3, 2007 - Jan 3, 2019) 2016 Roy Blunt d Jason Kander 2012 Claire McCaskill d Todd Akin 2010 Roy Blunt d Robin Carnahan (r Kit Bond Jan 3, 1987 - Jan 3, 2011) 2006 Claire McCaskill (d Jim Talent Nov 25, 2002 - Jan 3, 2007) 2004 Kit Bond d Nancy Farmer *2002 Jim Talent (da Jean Carnahan Jan 3, 2001 - Nov 25, 2002) 2000 Mel Carnahan (d John Ashcroft Jan 3, 1995 - Jan 3, 2001) 1998 Kit Bond d Jay Nixon 1994 John Ashcroft d Alan Wheat (r John Danforth Dec 27, 1976 - Jan 3, 1995) 1992 Kit Bond d Geri Rothman-Serot 1988 John Danforth d Jay Nixon 1986 Kit Bond d Harriett Woods (r Thomas Eagleton Dec 27, 1968 - Jan 5, 1987) 1982 John Danforth d Harriett Woods MS*2018 Cindy Hyde-Smith d Mike Espy & Chris McDaniel (a Cindy Hyde-Smith Apr 9, 2018, v Thad Cochran, Dec 27, 1978 - Apr 1, 2018 - 39) 2018 Roger Wicker d David Baria 2014 Thad Cochran d Travis Childers 2012 Roger Wicker d Al Gore 2008 Thad Cochran d Erik Fleming *2008 Roger Wicker d Ronnie Musgrove (a Roger Wicker Dec 31, 2007, v Trent Lott Jan 3, 1989 - Dec 7, 2007) 2006 Trent Lott d Erik Fleming 2002 Thad Cochran d Shawn O'Hara 2000 Trent Lott d Troy Brown 1996 Thad Cochran d James Hunt 1994 Trent Lott d Ken Harper 1990 Thad Cochran u 1988 Trent Lott d Wayne Dowdy (r John C. Stennis Nov 17, 1947 - Jan 3, 1989 - 41) 1984 Thad Cochran d William Winter 1982 John C, Stennis d Haley Barbour MT 2018 Jon Tester d Matt Rosendale 2014 Steve Daines d Amanda Curtis (ra John Walsh Feb 9, 2014 - Jan 3, 2015, v Max Baucus Dec 15, 1978 - Feb 6, 2014 - 35) 2012 Jon Tester d Denny Rehberg 2008 Max Baucus d Rob Kelleher 2006 Jon Tester (d Conrad Burns Jan 3, 1989 - Jan 3, 2007) 2002 Max Baucus d Mike Taylor 2000 Conrad Burns d Brian Schweitzer 1996 Max Baucus d Denny Rehberg 1994 Conrad Burns d Jack Mudd 1990 Max Baucus d Allen C. Kollstad 1988 Conrad Burns (d John Melcher Jan 3, 1977 - Jan 3, 1989) 1984 Mac Baucus d Chuck Cozzens 1982 John Melcher d Larry R. Williams NC 2016 Richard Burr d Deborah Ross 2014 Thom Tillis (d Kay Hagan Jan 3, 2009 - Jan 3, 2015) 2010 Richard Burr d Elaine Marshall 2008 Kay Hagan (d Elizabeth Dole Jan 3, 2003 - Jan 3, 2009) 2004 Richard Burr d Erskine Bowles (r John Edwards Jan 3, 1999 - Jan 3, 2005) 2002 Elizabeth Dole d Erskine Bowles (r Jesse Helms Jan 3, 1973 - Jan 3, 2003 - 30) 1998 John Edwards (d Lauch Faircloth Jan 3, 1993 - Jan 3, 1999) 1996 Jesse Helms d Harvey Gantt 1992 Lauch Faircloth (d Terry Sanford Nov 5, 1986 - Jan 3, 1993) 1990 Jesse Helms d Harvey Gantt 1986 Terry Sanford (da Jim Broyhill (for the next term, separate election, same day)) *1986 Terry Sanford (da Jim Broyhill (to finish current term) Jul 14, 1986 - Nov 4, 1986, v John Porter East Jan 3, 1981 - Jun 29, 1986) 1984 Jesse Helms d Jim Hunt ND 2018 Kevin Cramer (d Heidi Heitcamp Jan 3, 2013 - Jan 3, 2019) 2016 John Hoeven d Eliot Glassheim 2012 Heidi Heitcamp d Rick Berg (r Kent Conrad Jan 3, 1993 - Jan 3, 2013) 2010 John Hoeven d Tracy Potter (r Byron Dorgan Dec 15, 1992 - Jan 3, 2011) 2006 Kent Conrad d Dwight Grotberg 2004 Byron Dorgan d Mike Liffrig 2000 Kent Conrad d Duane Sand 1998 Byron Dorgan d Donna Nalewaja 1994 Kent Conrad d Ben Clayburgh *1992 Kent Conrad d Jack Dalrymple (ra Jocelyn Burdick Sep 16, 1992 - Dec 14, 1992, v Quentin Burdick Aug 8, 1960 - Sep 9, 1992 - 32) 1992 Byron Dorgan d Steve Sydness (r Kent Conrad Jan 3, 1987 - Jan 3, 1993) 1988 Quentin Burdick d Earl Strinden 1986 Kent Conrad (d Mark Andrews Jan 3, 1981 - Jan 3, 1987) NE 2018 Deb Fischer d Jane Raybould 2014 Ben Sasse d David Domina (r Mike Johanns Jan 3, 2009 - Jan 3, 2015) 2012 Deb Fischer d Bob Kerry (r Ben Nelson Jan 3, 2001 - Jan 3, 2013) 2008 Mike Johanns d Scott Kleeb (r Chuck Hagel Jan 3, 1997 - Jan 3, 2009) 2006 Ben Nelson d Pete Ricketts 2002 Chuck Hagel d Charlie A. Matulka 2000 Ben Nelson d Don Stenberg (r Bob Kerry Jan 3, 1989 - Jan 3, 2001) 1996 Chuck Hagel d Ben Nelson (r J. James Exon Jan 3, 1979 - Jan 3, 1997) 1994 Bob Kerry d Jan Stoney 1990 J. James Exon d Hal Daub 1988 Bob Kerry (da David Karnes Mar 11, 1987 - Nov 8, 1988, v Edward Zorinsky Dec 28, 1976 - Mar 6, 1987) 1984 J. James Exon d Nancy Hoch 1982 Edward Zorinsky d Jim Keck NH 2016 Maggie Hassan (d Kelly Ayotte Jan 3, 2011 - Jan 3, 2017) 2014 Jeanne Shaheen d Scott Brown 2010 Kelly Ayotte d Paul Hodes (r Judd Gregg Jan 3, 1993 - Jan 3, 2011) 2008 Jeanne Shaheen (d John E. Sununu Jan 3, 2003 - Jan 3, 2009) 2004 Judd Gregg d Doris Haddock 2002 John E. Sununu d Jeanne Shaheen (d Bob Smith Dec 7, 1990 - Jan 3, 2003) 1998 Judd Gregg d George Condodemetraky 1996 Bob Smith d Dick Swett 1992 Judd Gregg d John Rauh (r Warren Rudman Dec 29, 1980 - Jan 3, 1993) 1990 Bob Smith d John A. Durkin (v Gordon J. Humphrey Jan 3, 1979 - Dec 4, 1990) 1986 Warren Rudman d Endicott Peabody 1984 Gordon J. Humphrey d. Norman D'Amours NJ 2018 Bob Menendez d Bob Hugin 2014 Cory Booker d Jeff Bell *2013 Cory Booker d Steve Lonegan (ra Jeffrey Chiesa Jun 6, 2013 - Oct 31, 2013, v Frank Lautenberg, Jan 3, 2003 - Jun 3, 2013) 2012 Bob Menendez d Joe Kyrillos 2008 Frank Lautenberg d Dick Zimmer 2006 Bob Menendez d Thomas Kean, Jr. (a Bob Menendez Jan 6, 2006, v Jon Corzine, Jan 3, 2001 - Jan 17, 2006) 2002 Frank Lautenberg d Doug Forrester (r Robert Torricelli Jan 3, 1997 - Jan 3, 2003) 2000 Jon Corzine d Bob Franks (r Frank Lautenberg Dec 27, 1982 - Jan 3, 2001) 1996 Robert Torricelli d Dick Zimmer (r Bill Bradley Jan 3, 1979 - Jan 3, 2007) 1994 Frank Lautenberg d Chuck Haytaian 1990 Bill Bradley d Christine Todd Whitman 1988 Frank Lautenberg d Pete Dawkins 1984 Bill Bradley d Mary V. Mochary 1982 Frank Lautenberg d Millicent Fenwick (ra Nicholas F. Brady Apr 12, 1982 - Dec 27, 1982) NM 2018 Martin Heinrich d Mick Rich and Gary Johnson 2014 Tom Udall d Allen Weh 2012 Martin Heinrich d Heather Wilson (r Jeff Bingaman Jan 3, 1983 - Jan 3, 2013 - 30) 2008 Tom Udall d Steve Pearce (r Pete Domenici Jan 3, 1973 - Jan 3, 2009) 2006 Jeff Bingaman d Allen McColloch 2002 Pete Domenici d Gloria Tristani 2000 Jeff Bingaman d William T. Redmond 1996 Pete Domenici d Art Trujillo 1994 Jeff Bingaman d Colin McMillan 1990 Pete Domenici d Tom R. Benavides 1988 Jeff Bingaman d Bill Valentine 1984 Pete Domenici d Judith A. Pratt NV 2018 Jacky Rosen (d Dean Heller May 9, 2011 - Jan 3, 2019) 2016 Catherine Cortez Masto d Joe Heck (r Harry Reid Jan 3, 1987 - Jan 3, 2017 - 30) 2012 Dean Heller d Shelley Berkley (a Dean Heller May 9, 2011, v John Ensign Jan 3, 2001 - May 3, 2011) 2010 Harry Reid d Sharron Angle 2006 John Ensign d Jack Carter 2004 Harry Reid d Richard Zeiser 2000 John Ensign d Edward M. Bernstein (r Richard Bryan Jan 3, 1989 - Jan 3, 2001) 1998 Harry Reid d John Ensign 1994 Richard Bryan d Hal Furman 1992 Harry Reid d Demar Dahl 1988 Richard Bryan (d Chic Hecht Jan 3, 1983 - Jan 3, 1989) 1986 Harry Reid d James David Santini (r Paul Laxalt Dec 18, 1974 - Jan 3, 1987) 1982 Chic Hecht (d Howard Cannon Jan 3, 1959 - Jan 3, 1983) NY 2018 Kirsten Gillibrand d Chele Chiavacci Farley 2016 Chuck Schumer d Wendy Long 2012 Kirsten Gillibrand d Wendy Long *2010 Kirsten Gillibrand d Joseph DioGuardi (a Kirsten Gillibrand Jan 26, 2009, v Hillary Rodham Clinton Jan 3, 2001 - Jan 21, 2009) 2010 Chuck Schumer d Jay Townsend 2006 Hillary Rodham Clinton d John Spencer 2004 Chuck Schumer d Howard Mills III 2000 Hillary Rodham Clinton d Rick Lazio (r Daniel Patrick Moynihan Jan 3, 1977 - Jan 3, 2001) 1998 Chuck Schumer (d Al D'Amato Jan 3, 1981 - Jan 3, 1999) 1994 Daniel Patrick Moynihan d Bernadette Castro 1992 Al D'Amato d Robert Abrams 1988 Daniel Patrick Moynihan d Robert R. McMillan 1986 Al D'Amato d. Mark J. Green OH 2018 Sherrod Brown d Rob Menacci 2016 Rob Portman d Ted Strickland 2012 Sherrod Brown d Josh Mandel 2010 Rob Portman d Lee Fischer (r George Voinovich Jan 3, 1999 - Jan 3, 2011) 2006 Sherrod Brown (d Mike DeWine Jan 3, 1995 - Jan 3, 2007) 2004 George Voinovich d Eric Fingerhut 2000 Mike DeWine d Ted Celeste 1998 George Voinovich d Mary Boyle (r John Glenn Dec 24, 1974 - Jan 3, 1999) 1994 Mike DeWine d Joel Hyatt (r Howard Metzenbaum Dec 29, 1976, Jan 3, 1995) 1992 John Glenn d Mike DeWine 1988 Howard Metzenbaum d George Voinovich 1986 John Glenn d Tom Kindness OK 2016 James Lankford d Mike Workman 2014 Jim Inhofe d Matt Silverstein *2014 James Lankford d Connie Johnson (r Tom Coburn Jan 3, 2005 - Jan 3, 2015) 2010 Tom Coburn d Jim Rogers 2008 Jim Inhofe d Andrew Rice 2004 Tom Coburn d Brad Carson (r Don Nickles Jan 3, 1981 - Jan 3, 2005) 2002 Jim Inhofe d David Walters 1998 Don Nickles d Don Carroll 1996 Jim Inhofe d James Boran *1994 Jim Inhofe d Dave McCurdy (v David L. Boren Jan 3, 1979 - Nov 15, 1994) 1992 Don Nickles d Steve Lewis 1990 David L. Boren d Stephen L. Jones 1986 Don Nickles d James Robert Jones 1984 David L. Boren d Will E. Crozier OR 2016 Ron Wyden d Mark Callahan 2014 Jeff Merkley d Monica Wehby 2010 Ron Wyden d Jim Huffman 2008 Jeff Merkley (d Gordon Smith Jan 3, 1997 - Jan 3, 2009) 2004 Ron Wyden d Al King 2002 Gordon Smith d Bill Bradbury) 1998 Ron Wyden d John Lim 1996 Gordon Smith d Tom Bruggere (r Mark Hatfield Jan 10, 1967 - Jan 3, 1997 - 30*) *1996 Ron Wyden d Gordon Smith (v Bob Packwood Jan 3, 1969 - Oct 1, 1995) 1992 Bob Packwood d Les Aucoin 1990 Mark Hatfield d Harry Lonsdale 1986 Bob Packwood d Rick Bauman 1984 Mark Hatfield d Margie Hendriksen PA 2018 Bob Casey, Jr. d Lou Barletta 2016 Pat Toomey d Katie McGinty 2012 Bob Casey, Jr. d Tom Smith 2010 Pat Toomey d Joe Sestak (d Arlen Specter Jan 3, 1981 - Jan 3, 2011 - 30) 2006 Bob Casey, Jr. (d Rick Santorum Jan 3, 1995 - Jan 3, 2007) 2004 Arlen Specter d Joe Hoeffel 2000 Rick Santorum d Ron Klink 1998 Arlen Specter d Bill Lloyd 1994 Rick Santorum (d Harris Wofford May 9, 1991 - Jan 3, 1995) 1992 Arlen Specter d Lynn Yeakel *1991 Harris Wofford d Dick Thornburgh (a Harris Wofford May 9, 1991, v H. John Heinz III Jan 3, 1977 - Apr 4, 1991) 1988 H. John Heinz III d Joseph C .Vignola 1986 Arlen Specter d Robert W. Edgar RI 2018 Sheldon Whitehouse d Robert Flanders 2014 Jack Reed d Mark Zaccaria 2012 Sheldon Whitehouse d B. Barrett Hinckley III 2008 Jack Reed d Robert Tingle 2006 Sheldon Whitehouse (d Lincoln Chaffee Nov 4, 1999 - Jan 3, 2007) 2002 Jack Reed d Robert Tingle 2000 Lincoln Chaffee d Robert Weygand (a Lincoln Chaffee Nov 4, 1999, v John Chaffee Dec 28, 1976 - Oct 24, 1999) 1996 Jack Reed d Nancy J. Mayer (r Claiborne Pell Jan 3, 1961 - Jan 3, 1997 - 36) 1994 John Chaffee d Linda Kushner 1990 Claiborne Pell d Claudine Schneider 1988 John Chaffee d Richard A. Licht 1984 Claiborne Pell d Barbara Leonard SC 2016 Tim Scott d Thomas Dixon 2014 Lindsey Graham d Brad Hutto *2014 Tim Scott d Joyce Dickerson (a Tim Scott Jan 2, 2013, v Jim DeMint Jan 3, 2005 - Jan 1, 2013) 2010 Jim DeMint d Alvin Greene 2008 Lindsey Graham d Bob Conley 2004 Jim DeMint d Inez Tenenbaum (r Fritz Hollings Nov 8, 1966 - Jan 3, 2005 - 38) 2002 Lindsey Graham d Alex Sanders (r Strom Thurmond Nov 7, 1956 - Jan 3, 2003 - 46) 1998 Fritz Hollings d Bob Inglis 1996 Strom Thurmond d Elliott Close 1992 Fritz Hollings d Thomas F. Hartnett 1990 Strom Thurmond d Bob Cunningham 1986 Fritz Hollings d Henry D. McMaster 1984 Strom Thurmond d Melvin Purvis, Jr. SD 2016 John Thune d Jay Williams 2014 Mike Rounds d Rick Weiland & Larry Pressler (r Tim Johnson Jan 3, 1997 - Jan 3, 2015) 2010 John Thune u 2008 Tim Johnson d Joel Dykstra 2004 John Thune (d Tom Daschle Jan 3, 1987 - Jan 3, 2005) 2002 Tim Johnson d John Thune 1998 Tom Daschle d Ron Schmidt 1996 Tim Johnson (d Larry Pressler Jan 3, 1979 - Jan 3, 1997) 1992 Tom Daschle d Charlene Haar 1990 Larry Pressler d Ted Muenster 1986 Tom Daschle (d James Adnor Jan 3, 1981 - Jan 3, 1987) 1984 Larry Pressler d George V. Cunningham TN 2018 Marsha Blackburn d Phil Bredesen (r Bob Corker Jan 3, 2007 - Jan 3, 2019) 2014 Lamar Alexander d Gordon Ball 2012 Bob Corker d Mark E. Claytona 2008 Lamar Alexander d Bob Tuke 2006 Bob Corker d Harold Ford, Jr. (r Bill Frist Jan 3, 1995 - Jan 3, 2007) 2002 Lamar Alexander d Bob Clement (r Fred Thompson Dec 2, 1994 - Jan 3, 2003) 2000 Bill Frist d Jeff Clark 1996 Fred Thompson d J. Houston Gordon 1994 Bill Frist (d Jim Sasser Jan 3, 1977 - Jan 3, 1995) *1994 Fred Thompson d Jim Cooper (ra Harlan Mathews Jan 3, 1993 - Dec 1, 1994, v Al Gore Jan 3, 1985 - Jan 3, 1993) 1990 Al Gore d William R. Hawkins 1988 Jim Sasser d Bill Anderson 1984 Al Gore d Victor Ashe (r Howard Baker Jan 3, 1967 - Jan 3, 1985) TX 2018 Ted Cruz d Beto O'Rourke 2014 John Cornyn d David Alameel 2012 Ted Cruz d Paul Sadler (r Kay Bailey Hutchison Jun 14, 1993 - Jan 3, 2013) 2008 John Cornyn d Rick Noriega 2006 Kay Bailey Hutchison d Barbara Ann Radnofsky 2002 John Cornyn d Ron Kirk (v Phil Gramm Jan 3, 1985 - Nov 30, 2002) 2000 Kay Bailey Hutchison d Gene Kelly 1996 Phil Gramm d Victor Morales 1994 Kay Bailey Hutchison d Richard W. Fisher *1993 Kay Bailey Hutchison (da Bob Krueger Jan 21, 1993 - Jun 14, 1993, v Lloyd Bentsen Jan 3, 1971 - Jan 20, 1993) 1990 Phil Gramm d Hugh Parmer 1988 Lloyd Bentsen d Beau Boulter 1984 Phil Gramm d Lloyd Doggett (r John Tower Jun 15, 1961, Jan 3, 1985) UT 2018 Mitt Romney d Jenny Wilson (r Orrin Hatch Jan 3, 1977 - Jan 3, 2019 - 42) 2016 Mike Lee d Misty Snow 2012 Orrin Hatch d Scott Howell 2010 Mike Lee d Sam Granato (d Bob Bennett Jan 3, 1993 - Jan 3, 2011) 2006 Orrin Hatch d Pete Ashdown 2004 Bob Bennett d Paul Van Dam 2000 Orrin Hatch d Scott Howell 1998 Bob Bennett d Scott Leckman 1994 Orrin Hatch Patrick Shea 1992 Bob Bennett d Wayne Owens (r Jake Garn Dec 21, 1974 - Jan 3, 1993) 1988 Orrin Hatch d Brian Moss 1986 Jake Garn d Craig Oliver VA 2018 Tim Kaine d Corey Stewart 2014 Mark Warner d Ed Gillespie 2012 Tim Kaine d George F. Allen (r Jim Webb Jan 3, 2007 - Jan 3, 2013) 2008 Mark Warner d Jim Gilmore (r John Warner Jan 2, 1979 - Jan 3, 2009 - 30) 2006 Jim Webb (d George F. Allen Jan 3, 2001 - Jan 3, 2007) 2002 John Warner u 2000 George F. Allen (d Chuck Robb Jan 3, 1989 - Jan 3, 2001) 1996 John Warner d Mark Warner 1994 Chuck Robb d Oliver North 1990 John Warner d Nancy B. Spannaus 1988 Chuck Robb d Maurice A. Dawkins (r Paul S. Trible, Jr. Jan 3, 1983 - Jan 3, 1989) 1984 John Warner d Edythe C. Harrison VT 2018 Bernie Sanders d Lawrence Zupan 2016 Patrick Leahy d Scott Milne 2012 Bernie Sanders d John Mac Govern 2010 Patrick Leahy d Len Britton 2006 Bernie Sanders d Richard Tarrant (r Jim Jeffords Jan 3, 1989 - Jan 3, 2007) 2004 Patrick Leahy d Jack McMullen 2000 Jim Jeffords d Ed Flanagan 1998 Patrick Leahy d Fred Tuttle 1994 Jim Jeffords d Jan Backus 1992 Patrick Leahy d Jim Douglas 1988 Jim Jeffords d William Gray (r Robert Stafford Sep 16, 1971 - Jan 3, 1989) 1986 Patrick Leahy d Richard A. Snelling WA 2018 Maria Cantwell d Susan Hutchison 2016 Patty Murray d Chris Vance 2012 Maria Cantwell d Michael Baumgartner 2010 Patty Murray d Dino Rossi 2006 Maria Cantwell d Mike McGavick 2004 Patty Murray d George Nethercutt 2000 Maria Cantwell (d Slade Gorton Jan 3, 1981 - Jan 3, 1987, Jan 3, 1989 - Jan 3, 2001) 1998 Patty Murray d Linda Smith 1994 Slade Gorton d Ron Sims 1992 Patty Murray d Rod Chandler (r Brock Adams Jan 3, 1987 - Jan 3, 1993) 1988 Slade Gorton d Mike Lowry (r Daniel J. Evans Sep 12, 1983 - Jan 3, 1989) 1986 Brock Adams (d Slade Gorton) *1983 Daniel J. Evans d Mike Lowry (a Daniel J. Evans Sep 12, 1983 v Henry M. Jackson Jan 3, 1953 - Sep 1, 1983 - 30) WI 2016 Ron Johnson d Russ Feingold 2012 Tammy Baldwin d. Tommy Thompson (r Herb Kohl Jan 3, 1989 - Jan 3, 2013) 2010 Ron Johnson (d Russ Feingold Jan 3, 1993 - Jan 3, 2011) 2006 Herb Kohl d Robert Lorge 2004 Russ Feingold d Tim Michaels 2000 Herb Kohl d John Gillespie 1998 Russ Feingold d Mark Neumann 1994 Herb Kohl d Robert Welch 1992 Russ Feingold (d Bob Kasten Jan 3, 1981 - Jan 3, 1993) 1988 Herb Kohl d Susan Engeleiter (r William Proxmire Aug 28, 1957 - Jan 3, 1989 - 31) 1986 Bob Kasten d Ed Garvey WV 2018 Jon Manchin d Patrick Morrisey 2014 Shelley Moore Capito d Natalie Tennant (r Jay Rockefeller Jan 15, 1985 - Jan 3, 2015 - 30*) 2012 Joe Manchin d John Raese *2010 Joe Manchin d John Raese (ra Carte Goodwin Jul 16, 2010 - Nov 15, 2010, v Robert Byrd Jan 3, 1959 - June 28, 2010 - 51) 2008 Jay Rockefeller d Jay Wolfe 2006 Robert Byrd d John Raese 2002 Jay Rockefeller d Jay Wolfe 2000 Robert Byrd d David T. Gallaher 1996 Jay Rockefeller d Betty Burkes 1994 Robert Byrd d Stanley L. Klos 1990 Jay Rockefeller d John Yoder 1988 Robert Byrd d M. Jay Wolfe 1984 Jay Rockefeller d John Raese (r Jennings Randolph Nov 5, 1958,- Jan 3, 1985) WY - 2018 John Barrasso d Gary Trauner 2014 Mike Enzi d Charlie Hardy 2012 John Barrasso d Tim Chestnut 2008 Mike Enzi d Chris Rothfuss *2008 John Barrasso d Nick Carter (a John Barrasso Jun 25, 2007, v Craig Thomas Jan 3, 1995 - Jun 4, 2007) 2006 Craig Thomas d Robert Groutage 2002 Mike Enzi d Joyce Jansa Corcoran 2000 Craig Thomas d Mel Logan 1996 Mike Enzi d Kathy Karpan (r Alan K. Simpson Jan 3, 1979 - Jan 3, 1997) 1994 Craig Thomas d Mike Sullivan (r Malcolm Wallop Jan 3, 1977 - Jan 3, 1995) 1990 Alan K. Simpson d Kathy Helling 1988 Malcolm Wallop d John Vinich 1984 Alan K. Simpson d Victor A. Ryan
  3. Do people honestly think that in 5-10 years, smugglers in Mexico *won't* have drones that could lift people over a wall, and then return to lift others? Everyone is so damned short-sighted. Drones will also be the drug-running agents of choice in the near future, if they aren't already.
  4. I was told, by someone who really knows the situation, to read this: "John Kelly and His Son's Memory Bring Decency to the White House" by Michael Daly on thedailybeast.com
  5. [Please let me emphasize that this is a non-partisan website, and that any mention of "Republican" or "Democrat," or "conservative" or "liberal," will possibly be deleted, especially if it's a generalization. Also, no personal insults are allowed, although criticism of a person's *actions* are. This thread is about the comment itself, its implications (if any), and anything else closely related to it. Thanks for understanding, and for your responsible participation, Rocks] As a poster, and not a moderator, I find this comment extremely troubling - you should feel free to watch the entire video to put the excerpt in context: "The Ugly History of Stephen Miller's 'Cosmopolitan' Epithet" by Jeff Greenfield on politico.com "Stephen Miller's Tour de Farce" by James Warren on vanityfair.com --- My table-tennis instructor speaks perhaps twenty words of English.
  6. Everyone knows that the height of Washington, DC buildings is restricted, and many people mistakenly think the law says that buildings can be no higher than the Capitol Dome, which is a myth. In 1910, the Federal Government passed the Height of Buildings Act of 1910 which amended the Height of Buildings Act of 1899. See? You just learned something - there were two of them! After you read this post, you'll get the greatest benefit if you read the Wikipedia article about 1899 first (which includes a section about the Capitol Dome myth), and then the one about 1910 next. The 1899 law limited height to between 60 and 130 feet, and if you read the fascinating article (and the Act itself), it seems to make reasonable sense. Architecture aside, I can see a legitimate fear about fires breaking out many stories above the ground (don't forget - we had no motor-powered firetrucks, and certainly no high-tech hook-and-ladder vehicles, in 1899). Interestingly, an impetus for the 1899 Act was The Cairo apartment building in North Dupont. Built in 1894, it was the tallest building in the entire city at 14 stories (164 feet), and to this very day, it remains DC's tallest residential building. Most of the material was covered by the 1899 Act (which is why you should read it first), and the 1910 Act served largely to "make minor modifications and tighten it up," and that 1910 Act is still the law today. Here is the current law, as of Mar 11, 2016, in my everyday, "roadside prose," as Vladimir Nabokov would say: * No building can be taller than the width of the street in front of it plus twenty feet. For example, if the street directly in front of a building is 40 feet from-curb-to-curb, the building can only be 60-feet tall. * No building can be taller than 130 feet, with one exception: on the north side of Pennsylvania Avenue between 1st and 15th Streets NW (the parade route), a building can be 160-feet tall. * On a residential street, no building can be taller than 90 feet. * On a corner lot, the wider of the two streets is used as the basis for calculation. * On blocks adjacent to public buildings (e.g., schools), the maximum height is to be determined by a schedule written by the DC Council. * Next to the front of Union Station (the plaza), all buildings must be fireproof and cannot be taller than 80 feet. * Section 5, Paragraph h, is extremely long, but basically says that things like spires, towers, steeples, chimneys, smokestacks, etc. are exempt (this is an extreme simplification). If you're familiar with these seven bullet-points, you know the law better than 99.9% of the DC population. If anyone cares to discuss this further so that we can hit 99.999%, that's okay by me. The Tallest Buildings in Washington, DC 1. The Hughes Memorial Tower (1989, 761 feet) in Brightwood is the tallest structure in the Baltimore-DC metropolitan area (note the last bullet point above - it's exempt). 2. The Washington Monument (1848-1888, 555 feet) was grandfathered in, as were several other buildings and structures. 3. * The Basilica of the Natural Shrine of the Immaculate Conception (1920-1959, 329 feet) is one of the ten largest churches in the world, and the tallest habitable building in DC - it was granted an exemption). 4. * The Old Post Office Building (1892-1899, 315 feet) is being leased to The Trump Organization - there is a great deal of complexity to this lease, so bone up before chiming in, please. 5. The National Cathedral (1907-1990, 301 feet) is the second-largest church in the U.S. after The Cathedral of St. John the Divine in New York City. 6. * The United States Capitol (1793-1863, 289 feet) is under a major, three-year, external restoration project, and will have scaffolding around the dome until early 2017. 7. One Franklin Square (1989, 210 feet) is the tallest commercial building in DC, and is now home to The Washington Post - I'm curious why (and how) this building got an exemption. * These three buildings have the distinction of being the only buildings to claim that they are (were) "the tallest buildings in Washington, DC." I don't understand how the Basilica is "one of the ten largest churches in the world," but the Cathedral is the "second-largest church in the U.S." Here's a list of the Largest Church Buildings in the World - it looks like the claim about the Basilica could be referring to the exterior, which would make everything consistent. Note also the incredible discrepancy between exterior and interior of The Basilica of Our Lady of Peace in Ivory Coast. It's extremely thought-provoking that a "times-have-changed" mentality can easily be envisioned (and justified) while reading about these two Acts; yet, they were both passed over 100 years *after* the 2nd Amendment became law. No, this post was not some grand, manipulative build-up to ram a private political agenda down your throats; this one, largely unrelated item is merely an interesting point to ponder in its own right. I am also going on-record, right here, right now, and predicting that the Height of Buildings Act of 1910 will be overturned within the next fifty years, and that height restrictions will be greatly lifted, if not essentially removed altogether. Washington, DC, circa 2300 - if it's not a pile of rubble - is going to look a lot like Manhattan. And I think it's *so cool* that someone is going to look back and examine this statement in 284 years. "What the hell does 'so cool' mean?" they'll ask.
  7. I've been tracking our own Jon Karl's work for nearly twenty years, and I believe this was the finest moment of his formidable career - it was the right speech at the right time. "Freedom of the Press" by Jonathan Karl on abcnews.go.com
  8. When you're driving up the Baltimore-Washington Parkway, on the way to Baltimore-Washington International (Thurgood Marshall) Airport, the answer will be on your right when you pass Laurel: 193 countries are members of the United Nations. 2 countries are observers of the United Nations (Vatican City and Palestine). 1 country, Taiwan, is recognized by 21 UN members and 1 UN observer. 1 country, Kosovo, is recognized by 108 UN members and Taiwan. And that equals 197. In reality, there is no exact answer to this question, but this is a good approximate number - you could even say "around 200" and you'd be pretty close to being accurate, which is about as good as your answer can possibly be.
  9. [i'd like to remind everyone that it's NOT okay to discuss politics or religion unless it's in an intellectual or historical fashion. Personal insults are forbidden, as are blanket statements about political parties or specific religions, but it *is* encouraged to discuss policy and decisions in terms of their implications and impact, either potentially or fully realized. I believe I've mentioned to everyone that I am very much of a political independent, and that I judge each and every issue on its own merits, and that is the way I want this community to function.] The specifics of this issue are a disservice to our country and its citizens. "Republicans Rule Out Replacing Antonin Scalia Until New President Is Elected" by Stephen Dinan on washingtontimes.com Before a member of the Supreme Court is even set to rest - the very *day* he is found deceased - the Senate Majority Leader has ruled out replacing a vacancy on the Supreme Court for at least *11 months*, which is almost 25% of a full Presidential term. Why? What difference does it make, other than the possibility that one party might (repeat: might) not "get" a Supreme Court vacancy filled to its liking? This type of partisan governance *must stop*. I will add that the ranking "opposition party leader" [we should not *have* an "opposition party," and Senate members should not be "led"] is quoted in that article as saying, "The Supreme Court of the United States is too important to our democracy for it to be understaffed for partisan reasons." Allow me to go a step further, and say that this sentence would be more complete, and more correct, had the Senator left out the prefix "under" - read the sentence again with that prefix eliminated, and it will be obvious what I'm saying. Continuing the idea introduced in the previous paragraph, just as the Senate Majority Leader is doing a disservice to our country and its citizens by delaying governance, so would the President - any President - who would nominate a candidate based on his or her partisan liking. The person appointed should have one characteristic: to be the one most qualified for the job, period. Any President who selects someone who *isn't* the most qualified for the job has done a disservice to our country and its citizens. The above paragraph is largely theoretical, because it is the President who determines which candidate is "most qualified for the job," and this is where the rules get bogged down in their own imperfections - how can a President possibly know who is most qualified to be on the Supreme Court? The answer is not simple, but it should surely involve consultation with legal scholars who aren't influenced or corrupted by partisan prejudice. While this is not a legal requirement, it *is* a moral requirement, and quite likely one that has never before been executed. The losers because it hasn't been executed? Our country and its citizens. Of course, all these flaws are, in theory, "corrected" by checks and balances, but you can plainly see where that path has led us. It is the normal function and responsibility of our federal government to maintain continuity, and it absolutely *should not matter* who is President, and which Supreme Court Justice vacates their seat - this country, as an entity, has an obligation to our citizens to keep operating normally and without interruption. What if North Korea attacked South Korea? Would we wait 11 months to decide what to do about that? I don't care if it's a President's last day in office - things need to keep moving. This should absolutely *not* be a partisan issue, and this post has absolutely *nothing* to do with either of our two political parties. It is about the action - or inaction - of the Senate Majority Leader on this particular issue, and I'd be saying the *exact* same thing if the political situation was reversed. I've seen too many examples of this type of political stonewalling by both major parties, and it's why people, like me, *detest* raw, partisan politics. And I hope people notice that I didn't mention the name of any individual or political party, because this post has absolutely nothing to do with any person or any set of political beliefs.
  10. This is a great question that I just happened to think of, and despite my pride in knowing geography, cartography, and national capitals, I was wrong. Keep reading, and if you understand the answer, you will have learned a great deal in a very short amount of time. I was talking with the lady cutting my hair yesterday, who happened to be from one of these countries. I said, "It's landlocked, isn't it?" She said yes, somewhat impressed. This evening, I looked at a map of South America, and slam-dunked the countries in the Western Hemisphere that were landlocked. That is, until I checked my answer, which was only partially correct. Can you name the countries? This is by no means a trick question involving things such as "islands" (which wouldn't be landlocked anyway) or anything "weird" such as that. It's a straightforward question that is damnably difficult to guess. Take a moment to think, and then I'll give you a series of progressive hints, starting with this one, which you'll need to run your cursor over in order to see: Think of the gigantic oil company, BP (British Petroleum). Use the letters "B" and "P" as the first letters of the countries in South America. Okay, you have the first letters - do you have the countries? Obviously, you can rule out North America (with Canada, the United States, and Mexico), and I'll just flat-out tell you that there isn't a single country in Central America that's landlocked. So, that leaves the two in South America. If you haven't gotten them yet, I'll give you another hint here: The capitals of these countries are Sucre and Ascunsií³n. So, by this time, you've probably gotten them, although that second capital isn't all that easy, so go ahead and Google it, and then the first hint will become clear. That's it, right? And you'll remember this for the rest of your life. At least, that's what *I* thought when I made my guess, and I was so proud of myself for getting it right, even though I only got it half-right. Ponder this for a few minutes, and then look at my next clue: The "Western Hemisphere" is defined as anything west of 0-degrees longitude, i.e., the Prime Meridian, which runs through Greenwich, England. It's an entirely arbitrary, geologically meaningless point that was only established because England was such an enormous political power when all this was sorted out. Things just got a little bit tougher, but the fact that I was "half-right" is also a clue. Now, you have to *really* put your thinking caps on. Go ahead and take a moment, and then I'll give you my penultimate clue, which won't give it away, but it will put you right on top of everything: The two remaining countries are in Africa! Yeah, right? I was as shocked as you are. Think for a few minutes about where things are, and then I'll give you my final clue, which still won't give you the answer, but Google will allow you to finish: One of the countries has a capital which hosts the largest film festival in Africa, and the other has a famous, almost-mythical city which has had temperatures over 130 degrees Fahrenheit. Okay, that's it! Now, all I ask, in return for me presenting you the question and the answer, is to *always remember* what the answer is. You have just taken a giant leap in knowledge. And here's one final trick to help you remember the answer: Get a picture in your mind of a BP (British Petroleum) employee going to the bathroom (BM). BP-BM: Bolivia, Paraguay, Burkina Faso, Mali. Both of the African countries straddle the Prime Meridian, but both of their capitals lie in the Western Hemisphere, so you can decide for yourselves if you wish to include them.
  11. As President of China, Xi Jinping, arrives in Washington, DC today, I ask myself if he is the least famous person in this part of the world, relative to his position of importance. Pope Francis visits for a few days, and it is one of the most publicized, famous events in the recent history of our nation's capital, but then the day after, the *President of China* arrives, and nobody even knows he's here. Don't get me wrong: I'm not taking anything away from the Pope, but the differential in popularity between the two visits is remarkable. What do people make of this? Is it because a presidential visit - even if it is the President of China - is so routine that it's just not that big a deal? Is it because so many people love Pope Francis? (I doubt Pope Benedict XVI would have received this much attention.) If you asked the average person on the street in DC who the President of China is, I honestly think they wouldn't be able to answer correctly. Maybe I'm wrong. (And if I'm not wrong, this speaks more about Americans than it does President Xi.) "Xi Jinping's U.S. Visit" on xivisit.nbr.org "Xi Jinping, Chinese Leader, Has Weighty Agenda and Busy Schedule for U.S. Visit" by Jane Perlez and Yufan Huang on nytimes.com "Obama and Xi Jinping of China Agree to Steps on Cybertheft" by Julie Herschfeld Davis, David E. Sanger, and Jane Perlez on nytimes.com
  12. I mentioned in the "who ya drinkin' to" thread that I wanted to raise a glass to Abraham Lincoln on the 150th anniversary of his death, which is today. Which I have done, and which I do now: Here's to you, Mr. Lincoln. I also mentioned that Lincoln is the only U.S. president that I get emotional about. Which I do. He is the secular saint of our American history, the martyr who gave his life in service to the ideal of the American union and whose service ensured its survival. He is one of my very few heroes, maybe really my only one, besides Julia Child. Lincoln gave what I think was probably the greatest political speech ever given in English, on March 4, 1865, a few weeks before a traitor snuffed out his life and deprived us of the wisest soul we had to guide the nation through the aftermath of our greatest national trauma. Mr. Lincoln said this: Fellow-Countrymen: At this second appearing to take the oath of the Presidential office there is less occasion for an extended address than there was at the first. Then a statement somewhat in detail of a course to be pursued seemed fitting and proper. Now, at the expiration of four years, during which public declarations have been constantly called forth on every point and phase of the great contest which still absorbs the attention and engrosses the energies of the nation, little that is new could be presented. The progress of our arms, upon which all else chiefly depends, is as well known to the public as to myself, and it is, I trust, reasonably satisfactory and encouraging to all. With high hope for the future, no prediction in regard to it is ventured. On the occasion corresponding to this four years ago all thoughts were anxiously directed to an impending civil war. All dreaded it, all sought to avert it. While the inaugural address was being delivered from this place, devoted altogether to saving the Union without war, insurgent agents were in the city seeking to destroy it without war"”seeking to dissolve the Union and divide effects by negotiation. Both parties deprecated war, but one of them would make war rather than let the nation survive, and the other would accept war rather than let it perish, and the war came. One-eighth of the whole population were colored slaves, not distributed generally over the Union, but localized in the southern part of it. These slaves constituted a peculiar and powerful interest. All knew that this interest was somehow the cause of the war. To strengthen, perpetuate, and extend this interest was the object for which the insurgents would rend the Union even by war, while the Government claimed no right to do more than to restrict the territorial enlargement of it. Neither party expected for the war the magnitude or the duration which it has already attained. Neither anticipated that the cause of the conflict might cease with or even before the conflict itself should cease. Each looked for an easier triumph, and a result less fundamental and astounding. Both read the same Bible and pray to the same God, and each invokes His aid against the other. It may seem strange that any men should dare to ask a just God's assistance in wringing their bread from the sweat of other men's faces, but let us judge not, that we be not judged. The prayers of both could not be answered. That of neither has been answered fully. The Almighty has His own purposes. "Woe unto the world because of offenses; for it must needs be that offenses come, but woe to that man by whom the offense cometh." If we shall suppose that American slavery is one of those offenses which, in the providence of God, must needs come, but which, having continued through His appointed time, He now wills to remove, and that He gives to both North and South this terrible war as the woe due to those by whom the offense came, shall we discern therein any departure from those divine attributes which the believers in a living God always ascribe to Him? Fondly do we hope, fervently do we pray, that this mighty scourge of war may speedily pass away. Yet, if God wills that it continue until all the wealth piled by the bondsman's two hundred and fifty years of unrequited toil shall be sunk, and until every drop of blood drawn with the lash shall be paid by another drawn with the sword, as was said three thousand years ago, so still it must be said "the judgements of the Lord are true and righteous altogether." With malice toward none, with charity for all, with firmness in the right as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in, to bind up the nation's wounds, to care for him who shall have borne the battle and for his widow and his orphan, to do all which may achieve and cherish a just and lasting peace among ourselves and with all nations.
  13. DonRocks


    1500c The Rhind Papyrus - "Directions For Knowing All Dark Things" (Ahmes) 530c Pythagoras forms cult at Croton 458 "Agamemnon" (Aeschylus) 250c Philo of Byzantium uses a circle and a secant to determine string proportions 75c "De Rerum Natura" (Lucretius) 25c Didymus uses syntonic comma to correct Pythagoras 15c "De Architectura" (Vitruvius) discusses the mesolabium (error on p. 119 attributes this book to the 9th century) ------- 100c Clement (Alexandria) inserts image of Christ into music 126 Pantheon rebuilt by Hadrian 150c "Harmonics" (Claudius Ptolemy) introduces elements of "Just Intonation" 400c Ammianus (Rome) observes that 'music has displaced philosophy' 520c "Di Instituzione Musica" (Boethius) gives early implication that Equal Temperament goes against the laws of nature 745c Charlemagne (814) 757 Emperor Constantine Copronymus (Byzantine Empire) gifts organ To King Pepin (Franks) 812 King of Constantinople gifts organ to Charlemagne (Franks) 814 (Charlemagne, 745c) 826 Georgius builds organ at Aachen for Louis the Pious (Aquitaine) 900c Pope John VIII advocates Church Organs for teaching the science of music 1000c Organistrum invented (attributed to Odo of Cluny, note date discrepancy with Odo's birth date) 1030c Guido de Arezzo Develops Six-Note Ascending Scale (Ut Re Mi Fa Sol La) From "Ut Queant Laxis" 1079 Peter Abelard, (1142) 1093 Winchester Cathedral Opens 1132 Statute Of The Cistercian Order Tries To Regulate Singing 1141 Saint Aelred (Cistercian Rievaulx Abbey) Expresses Concern About Excessive Use Of Organs 1142 (Peter Abelard, 1079) 1163 Construction begins on Cathédral de Notre Dame de Paris (1345) 1190c "The Guide for the Perplexed" (Maimonides) 1195 "Saigyo Monogatari Emaki" depicts dwarfed potted trees, bonsai (Kamakura period, Tokugawa Art Museum, Nagoya) 1200c Arab Palace (whereabouts unknown) Gifts 90-Pipe Organ To Emperor Of China (hilariously, during the Song Dynasty) 1211 Construction begins on Cathédral de Notre Dame de Reims (1275) 1250c Melody Written Which Reversed Itself (Dominus - Nusmido) 1266 Giotto di Bondone (1337) 1274c "Summa Theologica" (Thomas Aquinas) 1275 (Cathédral de Notre Dame de Reims Opens, 1211) 1280c Anonymous IV (English commentator) describes thirds and sixths as "the most agreeable of all [harmonies]" "Perspectiva Communis" (John Peckham) 1300 First Jubilee Year, depicted in "The Inferno" by Dante as "a traffic jam in Hell" 1309 Avignon Papacy, 1378) 1310 Roman de Fauvel I (Gervais de Bus and Chaillou de Pesstain) 1314 Roman de Fauvel II (Gervais de Bus and Chaillou de Pesstain) 1320 "Feast of Herod" (Giotto) 1321 "The Inferno" (Dante) 1324 First Papal Bull Issued that was devoted entirely to music 1328 House of Valois (1589) 1330c Francesco Landini (1397) 1337 (Giotto di Bondone, 1266) 1342 "Presentation at the Temple" (Ambrogio Lorenzetti) 1345 (Cathédral de Notre Dame de Paris Opens, 1163) 1350 Costumes (mens and womens) became more revealing 1352 Construction begins On Strasburg Clock 1353 "The Decameron" (Boccaccio) 1355 Johannes Boen (Dutch Priest and Music Theorist) predicted heightened musical skills 1360c Robertsbridge Manuscript includes thirds in parallel motion (earliest surviving music written for keyboard) 1363 King John II (not Charles V - error on p. 69) grants Duchy of Burgundy as an appanage to Philip The Bold, (1404) 1364 Reign of King Charles V (1380) ------ Links are all completed before this point 1367 King John I (Aragon) Sought A Player For An Early, Primitive Clavicembalum 1370 Petrarch bequeaths a Giotto Madonna to his friend, the ruler of Padua 1377 Filippo Brunelleschi (1446) 1378 Lorenzo Ghiberti (1455) Papal Schism (1418) (Avignon Papacy, 1309) 1380 (King Charles V, 1364) 1382 Guild of Saint Luke (in Antwerp) began accepting tradesmen 1385 Roman Pope Urban VI Fled From Naples To Nocerina 1386 Donatello di Niccolò di Betto Bardi (1466) 1389 Year Depicted In Giovanni da Prato's "Paradiso degli Alberti" 1390c John Dunstable (1453) 1395 Parisian Police Forbade Minstrels To Mention Unity Or Disunity Of The Church In Their Songs 1397 Guillaume Dufay (1474) Giovanni Lambertacci (Padua) Informs Son-In-Law (University Of Pavia) That The Clavicembalum Had Been Invented (Francesco Landini, 1330c) 1400c Advanced Motets Written "Il Libro Dell'Arte" (Cennino Cennini) "Geographia" (Ptolemy) becomes available in Florence 1400 Dr. Hermannus Poll (Inventor Of Clavicembalum) Becomes Physician Of King Ruprecht Of The Palatinate (Southwestern Germany) 1401 Dr. Hermannus Poll Executed At Nuremburg For Treason Against The King 1402 Gian Galeazzo Visconti (Duke of Milan) dies of fever while invading Tuscanye 1404 Leon Battista Alberti (1472) Reign of John The Fearless (1419) (Philip the Bold) 1407c Filippo Brunelleschi and Donatello journey to Rome to study Classical Art 1408 "Sculpture of David" (Donatello) 1409 Council of Pisa attempts to install third Pope 1410c Conrad Paumann (1478) 1414 Council of Constance installed to eliminate Papal Schism 1417 Pope Martin V unifies papacy (1431) 1418 (Papal Schism, 1378) 1419 Reign of Philip The Good (1467) (Reign of John The Fearless, 1404) 1420 Filippo Brunelleschi begins work on Dome of Santa Maria del Fiore (1436) 1420c Filippo Brunelleschi (re-)discovers vanishing point, thus linear perspective with 1) Florentine Baptistery 2) Palazzo Vecchio 1425c Filippo Brunelleschi and Giovanni di Gherado da Prato exchange insulting sonnets 1425 "Gates of Paradise" (Lorenzo Ghiberti, east doors, second commission) 1426 "The Trinity" (Masaccio) 1435 "On Painting" (Leon Battista Alberti) repeats Protagoras that "Perception is truth." 1436 Pope Eugenius IV Consecrates Dome of Santa Maria del Fiore completed by Filippo Brunelleschi Guillaume Dufay performs motet Nuper rosarum flores at Dome's dedication 1439 Florentine Academy founded and led by Marsilio Ficino, supported by Cosimo de' Medici 1440 First attestation of the Dulce Melos (Henri-Arnault de Zwolle) 1445c Domenico da Piacenza publishes treatise on The Dance (not much is written about it) 1446 (Filippo Brunelleschi, 1377) 1447 Papacy of Pope Nicholas V (1455, error on page 109 stating his inauguration was on Christmas Day, 1449) 1449 Lorenzo de' Medici (1492) 1450c Antonio Squarcialupi most famous Italian organist in mid-15th century Movable-type printing press invented by Johannes Gutenberg 1451 Franchinus Gaffurius (1522) - index (and text) error by referring to him by both Franchino Gaffori and Franchinus Gaffurius 1452 Leonardo da Vinci (1519) "De Re Aedificatoria" (Treatise on Architecture, Leon Battista Alberti) (Gates of Paradise, 1425) 1452c Josquin des Prez (1521) 1453 Paolo Uccello weds, lays awake at night pondering perspective (John Dunstable, 1390c) 1453c First Gutenberg Bible printed (about 48 copies still exist) 1455 (Papacy of Pope Nicholas V, 1447) (Lorenzo Ghiberti, 1378) 1463 "Corpus Hermeticum" translated into Latin by Ficino 1466 Desiderius Erasmus (1536) Leonardo da Vinci apprentices in Andrea del Verrocchio's workshop (1476) (Donatello di Niccolí² di Betto Bardi, 1386) 1467 Reign of Charles The Bold (1477) (Reign of Philip The Good, 1419) 1468 Paolo del Pozzo Toscanelli draws meridian of sun's rays on the floor of Santa Maria del Fiore to determine Easter 1471 Papacy of Pope Sixtus IV (1484) 1472 (Leon Battista Alberti, 1404) 1473 Nicolaus Copernicus (1543) 1474 Paolo del Pozzo Toscanelli writes Fernam Martins and asserts viability of reaching the Orient by sailing west (Guillaume Dufay, 1397) 1475 Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni (1564) 1475c Johannes Tinctorus Chronicles English Musical Condition, In Which Composer John Dunstable Stood Forth 1476 Pope Sixtus IV announces offering of Indulgences for souls suffering in Purgatory (Leonardo da Vinci finishes apprenticeship in Andrea del Verrocchio's workship, 1466) 1477 (Reign of Charles The Bold, 1467) 1478 (Conrad Paumann, 1410c) 1480 Contract for organ at Lucca calls for both sharp and flat keys installed as options for the performer 1481c da Vinci leaves for Milan to present Ludovico Sforza with a lira da braccio from Lorenzo de' Medici 1482 "Musica Practica" (Bartolomeo Ramos de Pareja) supports Just Intonation. Euclid's "Elements" translated, uses geometry as a solution to irrational numbers 1482c Fazio Cardano translates John Peckham's "Perspectiva Communis" (1280c) and shares it with da Vinci 1483 Martin Luther (1546) 1484 Papacy of Pope Innocent VIIII (1492) (Papacy of Pope Sixtus IV, 1471) 1486 "Oration on the Dignity of Man" (Giovanni Pico della Mirandola) - 900 theses defended publiclyas the basis for all knowledge Pope Innocent VIII mortgages Papal Tiara to pay for his illegitimate son's (Franceschetto Cybo) lavish wedding to Lorenzo de' Medici's daughter 1486c Pope Innocent VIII establishes Papal bureau to sell favors and pardons at exorbitant prices (believe it or not) 1487 "Musices Opusculum" (Nicolaus Burtius) criticizes "Musica Practica" (page 9, e.g.) 1488c Viola Organista invented by da Vinci 1489c Plotinus translated into Latin by Ficino, who also publishes "De Vita Libri Tres" 1490c "Vitruvian Man" (da Vinci) accompanied by notes on the ancient Roman architect Vitruvius Adrian Willaert (Venezia, 1562) 1491 Henry VIIII (1547) 1492 "Theorica Musicae" (Gaffurius) Papacy of Pope Alexander VI (Rodrigo Borgia, 1503) (Papacy of Pope Innocent VIII, 1484) (Lorenzo de' Medici, 1449) 1496 "Practica Musicae" (Gaffurius) makes possible refererence to Meantone Temperament - date error on page 101 1498 "The Last Supper" (da Vinci), Refrectory of the Convent of Santa Maria della Grazie, Milan 1501 Cesare Borgia (son of Pope Alexander VI) holds "Ballet of the Chestnuts" in the Papal Palace 1503 (Papacy of Pope Alexander VI, 1492) 1506 "Mona Lisa" (da Vinci), La Louvre 1509 John Calvin (1564) Johannes Pfefferkorn publishes "Mirror of the Jews," ordering Jewish books destroyed (1553) 1511 Nicola Vicentino (Vicenza, c1576) Lira da Braccio (Giovanni d'Andrea (no biographical information found), Verona), Kunsthistorische Museum, Wien 1513 Machiavelli's first copy of "The Prince" Papacy of Pope Leo X (Giovanni di Lorenzo de' Medici, son of Lorenzo The Great <--- deserved for arrogance, 1521) 1514 Copernicus circulates manuscript among friends saying the Earth was not at the center of the cosmos Fra Bartolomeo's nude San Sebastian removed from the Convent of San Marco (Florence) due to women lusting after it 1517 Leo X names Johann Tetzel Commissioner of Indulgences for all of Germany Martin Luther nails The 95 Theses onto the door of Castle Church in Wittenberg, Saxony, beginning the Protestant Reformation Erasmus marvels that "splendid talents are forming all over the world" 1518 "What a century! What literature! How good it is to be alive!" (Letter written by Ulrich von Hí¼teen) 1519 "Quid Non Ebrietas" (Adrian Willaert) exposes flaws in Pythagorean Tuning and Just Intonation by an octave-leap after traveling the Circle of Fifths Ferdinand Magellan's crew sets sail around the world (1523) (Leonardo da Vinci, 1452) 1520 A French Instrument-Makers Guild claimed the right to make their own inlays and marquetry, incensing furniture makers 1521 (Josquin des Pres, 1452c) 1522 Pope Adrian VI wanted the Sistine Chapel ceiling stripped of nudes (Papacy of Pope Leo X, 1513) (Franchinus Gaffurius, 1451) 1523 "Toscanello In Musica" (Pietro Aron, Florence) makes definitive reference to Meantone Temperament Andreas Karlstadt (a Lutheran) sets aside church music, supports clerical matrimony, rejects baptism, and denounces education (Papacy of Pope Adrian VI, 1522) (4 of the original 55 on Magellan's Trinidad reach Spain, Tidore being the starting point of the final leg of the journey) 1531 "Avodat Hakkodesh" (Meir ben Ezekiel ibn Gabbai) says music creates "a magical resonance between earth and Heaven" 1533 Alfonso II d'Este (1597) First citation of the Lira da Braccio Giovanni Maria Lanfranco proposes equal temperament (flat fifths, sharp thirds) in "Scintille de Musica" 1534 John Calvin embraces Protestantism, forced to leave France Henry VIII's Act of Supremacy confiscated all lands belonging to the Holy See between 1536 and 1541, Church of England established 1535 Jan Beukelsz murders one of his (several) wives (error on page 123 says year was 1534) 1535c Silvio Cosini makes jerkin from human skin 1536 In "The Education of Children," also titled "On Civility in Children," Desiderius Erasmus (1466) calls this period "the worst age in history." 1538 Martin Luther praises complexity in music, calling anyone who does not understand it a "clodhopper." 1540 Jesuits (Society of Jesus) formed by Ignatius Loyola 1543 "On The Revolutions Of The Celestial Spheres" (Copernicus) (Nicolaus Copernicus, 1473) 1545 Council of Trent (1563) 1545c "Arezzo" (Bartolomeo Torri (spelling error on page 86)) 1546 (Martin Luther, 1483) 1547 (Henry VIII, 1491) 1550 "The Lives Of The Most Excellent Artists ...." (Vasari, 1st Edition) Theories of Temperament-to Music in 16th-Century Europe became much like Theories of Cartography-to-Mapmaking "De Subtilitate" (Girolamo Cardano) recommended scholars read love stories (et al) to rekindle their animal spirits 1551 Vicente Lusitano debates Nicola Vicentino before a court in Rome, over traditional musical views vs. radical ones 1553 Pope Julius III orders a burning of all copies of The Talmud 1555 Archicembolo, with six rows of keys, invented by Nicola Vicentino John Calvin turns Switzerland into an authoritarian state (1564) 1558 Gioseffo Zarlino describes tuning a lute using the mesolabium (attributed to Archimedes) 1562 Council of Trent urges ban on anything impure or lascivious in music (Adraen Willaert, 1490c) 1562c Cardinal Carlo Borromeo (Milan) induced composer Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina (Palestrina) to write "Missa Papa Marcelli" to win support of counterpoint 1563 (Council of Trent, 1545) 1563c Convocation of 1562/3 eliminated organs from churches (Protestants taking over Catholicism) 1564 Galileo Galilei (1642) (Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni, 1564)) (John Calvin, 1509) 1566 Carlo Gesualdo, Venosa (1613) 1568 "The Lives Of The Most Excellent Artists ...." (Vasari, 2nd Edition) 1570 Regnans in Excelsis (by Pope Pius V) declares Queen Elizabeth I a Heretic Giorgio Vasari covers up "The Trinity" (1426) 1576 Bubonic Plague kills nearly one-third (appr. 50,000) of Venezia (1577) 1576c Nicola Vicentino (1511) 1577 (Bubonic Plague in Venezia) 1581 Vincenzo Galilei mentions that the Viola Organista sounds like an ensemble of Viols 1589 (House of Valois, 1328) 1590 Carlo Gesualdo murders Donna Maria d'Avalos after catching her in flagrante delicto ------- End Dates Corrected To Here 1594 "Coelia" (William Percy) 1597 Cardinal Francesco Barberini (1679) 1598 Gian Lorenzo Bernini (1680) 1599 Queen Elizabeth gifts organ to Sultan Mehmet III of Constantinople (29 years after her excommunication) 1597 (Duke Alfonso II of Modena, 1533) - owned 52 harpsichords at his time of death 1606 Rene Descartes (1650) 1608 John Milton (1674) 1611 Woodcut of Josquin des Prez (copied from a lost oil painting) 1613 (Carlo Gesualdo, 1566) 1618 Fabio Colonna publishes "La Sambuca Lincea, Overo del'Musico Perfetto" 1698 "Eighth Sonnet" (William Shakespeare) 1618 "Temple Of Music" (Robert Fludd) Michael Praetorius calls the Hurdy-Gurdy 'the lyre of peasants and itinerant wenches' 1621 The Anatomy of Melancholy 1623 Blaise Pascal (1662) Pope Urban VIII Reign (1644) 1625 Charles I Reign (1649) 1637c "Harmonie Universelle" (Marin Mersenne) proposes 17-key, 19-key octaves to resolve wolf notes; uses intersecting triangles to determine string proportions 1640 Doni (mean) vs. Frescobaldi (equal) 1642 Issac Newton (1726) (Gaileo Galilei, 1564) 1644 Lords and Commons Ordinance calls for demolition of organs, monuments to idolatry and superstition, etc. 1644 (Pope Urban VIII Reign) 1649 (Charles I Reign) 1650 (Rene Descartes) 1655 Bartolomeo Cristofori (1731) 1660 Charles II Reign (1685) 1662 Royal Society Formed (Blaise Pascal) 1667 Jonathan Swift (1745) Paradise Lost 1674 (John Milton) 1679 (Cardinal Francesco Barberini) 1680 (Gian Lorenzo Bernini) 1683 Jean-Philippe Rameau (1764) 1684 Bernard Smith (split keys) vs. Renatus Harris 1685 George Frideric Handel (1759) Domenico Scarlatti (1757) Johann Sebastian Bach (1750) (Charles II Reign) 1687 "A Song for Saint Cecilia's Day" (John Dryden) 1700 Cristofori keeps and signs the musical inventory of the de Medici family - first hard evidence of a piano 1726 Gulliver's Travels (Grand Academy of Lagado) (Issac Newton) 1731 (Bartolomeo Cristofori) 1745 (Jonathan Swift) 1750 Handel buys split-key organ for Foundling Hospital (not 1768, error on page 19) (Johann Sebastian Bach) 1756 Ernst Florens Friedrich Chladni (1827) Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1791) 1757 (Domenico Scarlatti) 1759 (George Frideric Handel) 1764 (Jean-Philippe Rameau) 1785 "Art du Faiseur d'Instruments de Musique et Lutherie" (Diderot et d'Alambert, Paris) 1787 "Discoveries in the Theory of Sound" (Chladni) - grains of sans form geometric patterns on a plate that is bowed 1791 (Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart) 1819 "Ode On A Grecian Urn" (John Keats) 1822 "Hellas" (Percy Bysshe Shelley) 1827 (Ernst Florence Friedrich Chladni) 1857 "Les Fleurs du Mal" (Charles Baudelaire) 1874 John Ruskin impressed with Giotto's Frescoes 1914 Robert Frost writes to John Bartlett, "A sentence is a sound unto itself onto which other sounds called words may be strung." 1922 "Sonnets to Orpheus" (Rainer Maria Rilke, not "The Poet," error on page 58) 1942 "Notes Towards A Supreme Fiction" (Wallace Stevens) 1972 "The Thicket of Spring" (Paul Bowles) 1975 "The Painted Word" (Thomas Wolfe)
  14. Summary: 1) Empire Merchants (a wine distributor) donated $33,000 to Sen. Jeff Klein's re-election campaign. 2) Empire Merchants is pushing a bill, which was authored by Jeff Klein, that would benefit almost exclusively them. How? 1) The bill requires that all wine sold in New York is warehoused in New York for at least one day 2) Empire Merchants has their warehouses in New York 3) Almost all other competitors have their warehouses in New Jersey with its lower costs 4) These competitors will now have to make arrangements to store their wines in New York for one day 5) The estimated consumer effect is that wine prices will be raised up to $7 a bottle Here is the New York Post article. For $33,000, Empire Merchants gets to try and drive their competitors out of business. Courtesy of Senator Jeff Klein, author of the "At Rest" bill. Is this a de facto bribe? Is it a payback? Or ... is this just good, honest lawmaking? Decide for yourselves.
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