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Found 10 results

  1. Does anyone want a stack of 170 or so National Geographic magazines? They start in 1967 and go to 1986 (1 each) and 1993 (2 each) Very few years are complete The most complete years are from 71 - 83 Some magazines are in near perfect condition. Others have been cut up for pictures for elementary school projects in the 70s. But even the ones that are cut are mostly intact Free to a good home. If no one wants them, anyone have any idea what to do with them? I’d hate to just toss them out. I was thinking about calling the local school to see if they could use them for art class. 
  2. ------------------------> As Time Goes By 2018 - - Herschel Browne's Difficult Trivia Challenge - 2022 - "Americans" - an Exhibit at the Museum of the American Indian 2016 - 2017 - Merrick Garland's 11-Month-Long Supreme Court Nomination 2016 - - Utqiaġvik, Alaska 2002 - - Alan Dershowitz Sanctions Torture 1999 - - Nunavut, Canada 1972 - - The Watergate Scandal 1971 - - Bangladesh 1969 - - What Did Neil Armstrong Say? 1968 - - Tysons Corner Center, VA - a Top-10 Largest Mall in the USA 1964 - - G.I. Joe - Hasbro's Iconic Army Doll Makes its Debut 1952 - - Christopher Langan, a Bouncer with an IQ Close to 200 1952 - - Paul Reubens, Whose Career Was Unfairly Ruined 1949 - 1994 - Pablo Escobar, the Richest Drug Lord in History 1948 - 2008 - Amazing U.S. Presidential Trivia Question 1941 - Dec 7, 1941 1938 - 2018 - Kofi Annan - the 7th Secretary-General to the UN 1932 - 2018 - Jhoon Rhee, the Father of U.S. Taekwondo 1925 - 1963 - Medgar Evers, Civil-RIghts Activist and Martyr from Mississippi 1918 - 2018 - Billy Graham, Legendary "Evangelist to the Presidents" 1902 - - The Tank, the Republic of Cuba, and the Death of Cecil Rhodes 1893 - - Red Hots, Chicago's Hot Dog 1886 - - Sears, Roebuck, and Company, World's Largest Retailer until 1991 1859 - Restaurant Review in the New York Times, 170-Years Old 1821 - - Mexico 1802 - - Kinsman, OH - Unincorporated Community 75-Miles East of Cleveland 1789 - - U.S. Presidents and Their Previous Offices - U.S. Senators and Elections 1769 - - Ninety Six, SC - the Town with the Enigmatic Name 1681 - - The Drummer of Tedworth - a Poltergeist 1494 - - Why Does Brazil Speak Portuguese instead of Spanish? 1214 - 1270 - King Louis IX of France, aka Saint Louis - a Renowned Torturer
  3. What to do when you have an empty weekend this Spring? Explore the Harriet Tubman Underground Railroad Byway, a 125-mile-long scenic driving tour which begins about 80 miles east of Washington, DC. I could rewrite all the information about the tour, but it's all right here on the website: harriettubmanbyway,org, which contains all the information you need to know. If anyone is sifting through the website, and finds any interesting nuggets, please feel free to post them here, as I'm sure certain things deserve to be highlighted. One thing this website can do is to suggest places to eat along the way, which can be our way of giving some value-added information not otherwise on the internet. If anyone knows of any restaurants and hotels near the route, please chime in, and if we get enough, I'll organize and order them so everyone can have a more pleasant trip.
  4. I watched "Roots" when I was fifteen years old, having absolutely *no* real-life experience to lend the series context - I lived in a sheltered, upper-middle class suburb, and had absolutely no exposure to any of this, except what I was taught in school. Having recently watched movies such as "Django Unchained," "Guess Who's Coming to Dinner?" "Do the Right Thing," and "12 Years a Slave," I thought it was high time for *me* to do the right thing, and get back to the roots of all these movies - the original 1977 miniseries, which caused an incredible stir when it was released. It was hard to watch then, and I suspect it will be even harder to watch now that I have life's experiences behind me. I remember very well, about twenty years ago, a Jewish friend of mine watched all of "Shoah" - no small task - because he promised himself that he would, as a Jew, in order to educate himself and remember what happened to his people. For a similar - but opposite - reason, I'm watching Roots: Not because of what happened *to* my people, but because of what my people did *to* another race of innocents. Do I feel *personally* responsible for what occurred? I wasn't born yet, so how could I? Do I feel a responsibility for what occurred? Of course I do - primarily because it's still going on. A successful television broadcast is now considered to be about 10 million viewers - even though Roots got off to a relatively slow start, episode #1 was the only episode of the 8 - which ran every day for a week - that pulled in less than 30 million. It was remarkably successful, and well-received by both critics and the general public alike. Roots won 9 Emmy Awards with 28 nominations, and 1 Golden Globe Award with 2 nominations. Maybe I'm being a touch dramatic, but I hope this post inspires others to rewatch this important series. Amazon has the first episode for free, hoping to reel in viewers who will purchase the entire series for $34.99. I refuse to pay this, and am wondering if anyone knows where it can be viewed for less money. Alex Haley wrote the book (see below for additional information), and is implicitly credited as a Writer in all six episodes. There are simply too many stars in this series to do anything but add simple links for them - refer to their Wikipedia links for all the other work they've done - this would be a fool's errand for me to attempt. Jan 23 - Jan 29, 1977 - Episode List and Timetable Episode 1 - Directed by David Greene (Director of "Sebastian"), Written by William Blinn (Screenwriter of "Brian's Song") and Ernest Kinoy (Writer of "I Wouldn't Start from Here" on "Route 66") Featuring Edward Asner, O.J. Simpson, Ralph Waite, Ji-Tu Cumbuka, Maya Angelou, Moses Gunn, Thalmus Rasulala, Hari Rhodes, William Watson, Renn Woods, Levar Burton, Cicely Tyson, Ernest Thomas, Rebecca Bess, Henry Butts, Episode 2 - Episode 3 - Episode 4 - Episode 5 - Episode 6 - When the first episode ended, the first thing I thought of was the 9/11 attacks by Al-Qaeda: A few *morons* with letter openers brought down the World Trade Center, killing thousands in the process. It takes so little to do so much damage, and although slavery was a large institution, the protagonists in Episode 1 were just a few dozen idiots. Ironically, the victims of this crime against humanity were Muslim. I'm not sure how historically accurate that is (Alex Haley was caught plagiarizing parts of his book), but in Ghana, i,e., Northwest Africa, it's not impossible. "Miniseries: Roots Special" on pbs.org May 27, 2016 - "Roots: Behind the 1977 Series that Started a National Conversation" by Alynda Wheat on people.com
  5. Okay, so you're saying to yourselves, "What on earth is Rockwell doing reading a book aimed at children?" One day last year, I was in Sacramento, CA, and visited the State Capitol Building, a beautiful, Classical Revival building that is considered one of our nation's loveliest state capitols - and it is, too, especially when taken as an ensemble with its stunning grounds. Sacramento is not all that far from the bay area, and taking a day trip to see the State Capitol will be a day well-spent - it is a truly stunning building, and the grounds alone are easily worth an hour or two - an abundance of restaurants are within a mile. Anyway, my guide had earlier mentioned the California Gold Rush - a topic about which I know precious little - and also told me of The Donner Party <--- SPOILERS ABOUND: a pioneering excursion out to Sacramento which ended in great tragedy and suffering for many, and a very famous local legend (which also happens to be true). I hadn't even heard of The Donner Party, and when I stumbled across the State Capitol Gift Shop, I saw this little book: "Patty Reed's Doll - The Story of the Donner Party." It looked like a relatively new printing, as it was originally written in 1956 by Rahel K. Laurgaard - then, an English Literature graduate student at what is now Sacramento State. Does that sound obscure enough? Well, apparently, *someone* thought highly enough of this book to print it and sell it, and at least one copy now resides in the Washington, DC area - let me tell you something: I'm glad I read this. It was about 140 quick pages - maybe a 3-4 hour read with charming black-and-white illustrations - and written at a teenage, perhaps even an elementary-school level (many comments that you see about it online are fond reminisces of ladies reading it to their granddaughters - it's that kind of book). So why am I reading a book written for teenage girls? (I confess also, when I visited Prince Edward Island, I bought, read, *and enjoyed* Anne of Green Gables by Lucy Maud Montgomery) I have no problem whatsoever with teenage literature if it's *good* teenage literature, and there was nothing condescending at all about "Patty Reed's Doll" other than it was *clearly* toned down, and written by a woman, for young girls (and I suppose also young boys) as its target audience - but it was done so intelligently. SPOILERS FOLLOW FOR THE REST OF THIS POST --- There's one word that isn't mentioned, or even hinted at, in this entire book, and it's a five-syllable, ultra-taboo word which begins with the letter C. The Donner Party, you see, became stranded in the Sierra Nevada Mountains during the winter of 1846-1847 (*), having been given (if you'll excuse the pun) one bum steer after another, especially from Lansford Hastings who wrote a little book about Hasting's Cutoff, a route that was supposed to take 300 miles off the arduous voyage for these brave pioneers, and which ultimately led to this disaster - the book also does not mention that, aside from reports of cannibalism, 48 of 87 people died during passage. The book is told from the fascinating perspective of "Dolly" - 12-year-old Patty Reed's 4-inch-tall, wooden doll which she secretly kept inside her pocket for the duration of the voyage. This ingenious perspective gave Laurgaard the exact literary device she needed to conceal the more gruesome aspects of this tragic voyage from the reader, and to spare children details of consuming human flesh. The fact that Dolly belonged to the Reed party - instead of the Donner party - also gave her one more level of concealment from the horrible fate which befell many of the parties, as the Dinner (I keep accidentally typing that word) ... the *Donner* Party wasn't staying in the same cabin - it was easy to use these conveniences to forego the more taboo subjects of the story. Most people might tell you that this isn't a good "first book" to read about the issue, but I disagree. Going into the book, I knew about the snowstorm, and I knew that accusations of cannibalism had been made, and apparently, because of the sensationalism, these two bits of information are the only things that most people know. Since this book doesn't touch on the latter, you get a real feel for what it must have been like to be a pioneer. In fact, you felt as if you were actually one of the party members, taking part in the passage - you really got the whole story of the trans-continental journey, and a real feel for what the life of a pioneer must have been; if you want the gory details, just click on the Donner Party Wikipedia link at the top - it has extensive references to all the gore and misery you care to handle; personally, I'm glad I read the toned-down version, as there are only so many "disaster stories" I can endure during my lifetime - I just do not enjoy reading about human suffering, and this book conveys the essence of the voyage while sparing the reader the awful realities that accompany it. Yes, you could say it was whitewashed, and it was, but that's because it was purposely written for a young audience. Undoubtedly, in Sacramento, this story was already widely known - certainly by the parents who bought the book for their children - and to rehash its cruelest aspects would be, if you'll forgive the phrase, beating a dead horse. Unless you go to Sacramento - where Laurgaard ended up being an English Professor for over 15 years at the university - or unless you call somewhere out there and ask where to find the book, you're likely never to see it. But you can find it if you look for it; unfortunately, this is something of a "charming relic" from a more innocent era - one in which it wasn't necessary to graphically show or describe every gruesome detail for the viewer or the reader. I appreciated its restraint very much, and *now* I can choose to go in and read about the more difficult realities (I still haven't, and I might not, although now that I'm thinking about it, I probably will). Using the wooden doll as the narrator was brilliant, and afforded the author an elegant solution to a difficult problem. It may surprise you to hear that, despite the "prim and proper" language used throughout (think: the five daughters in Jane Austen's "Pride and Prejudice" (whom I can still name in descending order of age: Jane, Elizabeth, Mary, Kit, and Lydia (JEM KILL - that's how I remembered)), I didn't feel like I was reading some Victorian moralist child's tale; I just felt like I was reading a well-written book for teens learning about California history - teens who were spared the gory details of one of the worst possible conundrums human beings can find themselves facing. I recommend "Patty Reed's Doll" for just about anyone, and you certainly will not regret the three-hour investment of your time in learning about this distinctly American tragedy. The actual Patty Reed's Doll is on display at Sutter's Fort in Sacramento (visitor information): 11/13/12 - "Sutter's Fort Offers Visitor Enhancements and Return of Patty Reed Doll" by Tracie Rockefeller Cusack on sacramentopress.com I'll be happy to lend a copy of my book to anyone not able to find it. (*) When you think that this was less than 10 generations ago, it's no wonder we're still so primitive. We've had a lot of industrial and technological advances, sure - too many for our feeble minds to deal with - but we had no electricity, we had slavery, we were fighing the Mexican-American War, the Civil War wouldn't take place for another generation, the western frontier of the U.S. was Independence, Missouri, we had no automobiles, no telephones ... we're not that far removed from all of this.
  6. "It doesn't take much to see that the problems of three little people don't amount to a hill of beans in this crazy world." Reading this book made me think of that famous line uttered by Rick in "Casablanca." What a beautiful, wild and wondrous world this is. And what a tiny little speck am I in it. A friend loaned me this book, and he raved about it. I wasn't sure if I would enjoy it or not. I didn't study much science in college, taking "Understanding the Weather" for an easy A, only to find the cushy professor who always taught the class was replaced that year by someone who cared about cumulus clouds I loved this book, perhaps because of my lack of knowledge about the topic. Reading it on an airplane beside my college-aged kids, they rolled their eyes at me as I shared tidbits. "Everyone knows that, mom. We learned that in fourth grade." My educational shortcomings aside, this is a book that scientists and the less scientifically inclined can enjoy. Richard Fortey, a senior paleontologist at the Natural History Museum in London, writes extensively about life on earth, in all of its stages. I enjoyed his writing style, and I never felt like I was reading a biology textbook. His tone is conversational, and he even throws in pieces of poetry, here and there, for people whose brains work like mine. I learned a great deal reading this book, and I enjoyed every minute of it.
  7. There is a great opportunity tomorrow and Sunday to gain free admittance to some of the lesser-known DC museums that normally charge a fee for entry. It's the Dupont-Kalorama Museum Walk. Participating venues this year include the Christian Heurich House, The Anderson House, the Phillips Collection, and others. There is a free shuttle that makes regular stops at all of the venues throughout the weekend, but I find that most of them are within reasonable walking distance of one another. If you haven't visited any of these museums or it's been awhile, I think it would be well worth your time (and again, free admission to all of the participating museums tomorrow and Sunday).
  8. I watched Ken Burns' second documentary on American Life, "The Shakers: Hands to Work, Hearts to God" (1984), released three years after his fine "Brooklyn Bridge" (1981) documentary, and while I learned a lot, I thought it was somewhat dull in comparison with the Brooklyn Bridge (which I touch on here). Don't get me wrong: It was worth watching, but for Burns to be able to pick *any* American Historical topic, and to choose The Shakers seems obscure to the point of being odd. The Shakers were, quite literally, "Shaking Quakers," named as such for the ecstatic dances they would perform, falling into an almost hypnotic trance as they sang and worshipped - that, in and of itself, is fascinating, and would have been great to see, but other than one small drawing, and a five-second clip of an aging shaker demonstrating a move, there was absolutely nothing about the dancing - which I found inexplicable. When you hear "Shaker," you think Shaker furniture, and this film reveals why: They celebrated God by trying to achieve perfection in their work, which is why their work was of such high quality. I, personally, have shaker-style (ladder-back) dining room chairs, and I love them (E.A. Clore in Madison, VA, if anyone is interested in artisan furniture, but that's really going off on a tangent). To summarize, while I'm glad I watched the documentary, and while I learned something about Shakers, this came across to me as an opportunity lost. There were too many interviews with aging women (which may be intentional, as the Shakers are dying out very quickly, and may soon no longer exist), but these interviews, after awhile, became painfully dull. This is one of those things like reading "Walden" (1854): Yes, I'm glad I read it, yes, I'm a better person for having gotten through it - and I was largely bored the entire time. For Burns "completists," it's a must, but for someone in search of a great example of what Burns is capable of (and he is capable of fantastic, entertaining documentaries - he truly does have a gift), I would bypass this one - although I've only watched several of his works to date, I believe "The Shakers" will end up being one of his more obscure films. One thing that I vividly remember: a representative of the Shakers went to Washington, DC as the Civil War broke out, went directly to President Lincoln, and requested the right to passive dissent when it came to fighting, i.e., he was a conscientious objector. At first Lincoln declined, saying that these men were able-bodied, but he was finally talked into exempting Shaker males from participating in the war due to their religious beliefs - this is thought to be the first case of an exemption from fighting in a war due to religious beliefs in United States history - an important milestone. And they weren't just trying to worm out; they genuinely were against harming their fellow brethren; quite to the contrary, they would take in total strangers, and treat them as family. Sometimes, knowing full well that these strangers were merely seeking warmth during the winter - these people became known as "Winter Shakers," and you know what? They didn't care - they accommodated them anyway, with open arms. When thieves stole a portion of their crops, do you know what they did? They planted more seeds, figuring that a certain percentage would be lost to those desperate enough to steal food. These were good people who loved their fellow man, and went out of their way to be kind to them. If only the world had more people such as this.
  9. I just watched a great documentary called Bourbontucky on the Audience network. It covers the history of the industry in Kentucky, with many of the important players interviewed. It also included discussion of the impacts of bourbon being in great demand, future trends, and the related spin-off products and industries. There is a pretty extensive segment with Bill Thomas of Jack Rose. Worth a watch if you can find it. (It's on again today March 15 at 1 pm)
  10. DonRocks

    Timeline

    1500c The Rhind Papyrus - "Directions For Knowing All Dark Things" (Ahmes) 530c Pythagoras forms cult at Croton 458 "Agamemnon" (Aeschylus) 250c Philo of Byzantium uses a circle and a secant to determine string proportions 75c "De Rerum Natura" (Lucretius) 25c Didymus uses syntonic comma to correct Pythagoras 15c "De Architectura" (Vitruvius) discusses the mesolabium (error on p. 119 attributes this book to the 9th century) ------- 100c Clement (Alexandria) inserts image of Christ into music 126 Pantheon rebuilt by Hadrian 150c "Harmonics" (Claudius Ptolemy) introduces elements of "Just Intonation" 400c Ammianus (Rome) observes that 'music has displaced philosophy' 520c "Di Instituzione Musica" (Boethius) gives early implication that Equal Temperament goes against the laws of nature 745c Charlemagne (814) 757 Emperor Constantine Copronymus (Byzantine Empire) gifts organ To King Pepin (Franks) 812 King of Constantinople gifts organ to Charlemagne (Franks) 814 (Charlemagne, 745c) 826 Georgius builds organ at Aachen for Louis the Pious (Aquitaine) 900c Pope John VIII advocates Church Organs for teaching the science of music 1000c Organistrum invented (attributed to Odo of Cluny, note date discrepancy with Odo's birth date) 1030c Guido de Arezzo Develops Six-Note Ascending Scale (Ut Re Mi Fa Sol La) From "Ut Queant Laxis" 1079 Peter Abelard, (1142) 1093 Winchester Cathedral Opens 1132 Statute Of The Cistercian Order Tries To Regulate Singing 1141 Saint Aelred (Cistercian Rievaulx Abbey) Expresses Concern About Excessive Use Of Organs 1142 (Peter Abelard, 1079) 1163 Construction begins on Cathédral de Notre Dame de Paris (1345) 1190c "The Guide for the Perplexed" (Maimonides) 1195 "Saigyo Monogatari Emaki" depicts dwarfed potted trees, bonsai (Kamakura period, Tokugawa Art Museum, Nagoya) 1200c Arab Palace (whereabouts unknown) Gifts 90-Pipe Organ To Emperor Of China (hilariously, during the Song Dynasty) 1211 Construction begins on Cathédral de Notre Dame de Reims (1275) 1250c Melody Written Which Reversed Itself (Dominus - Nusmido) 1266 Giotto di Bondone (1337) 1274c "Summa Theologica" (Thomas Aquinas) 1275 (Cathédral de Notre Dame de Reims Opens, 1211) 1280c Anonymous IV (English commentator) describes thirds and sixths as "the most agreeable of all [harmonies]" "Perspectiva Communis" (John Peckham) 1300 First Jubilee Year, depicted in "The Inferno" by Dante as "a traffic jam in Hell" 1309 Avignon Papacy, 1378) 1310 Roman de Fauvel I (Gervais de Bus and Chaillou de Pesstain) 1314 Roman de Fauvel II (Gervais de Bus and Chaillou de Pesstain) 1320 "Feast of Herod" (Giotto) 1321 "The Inferno" (Dante) 1324 First Papal Bull Issued that was devoted entirely to music 1328 House of Valois (1589) 1330c Francesco Landini (1397) 1337 (Giotto di Bondone, 1266) 1342 "Presentation at the Temple" (Ambrogio Lorenzetti) 1345 (Cathédral de Notre Dame de Paris Opens, 1163) 1350 Costumes (mens and womens) became more revealing 1352 Construction begins On Strasburg Clock 1353 "The Decameron" (Boccaccio) 1355 Johannes Boen (Dutch Priest and Music Theorist) predicted heightened musical skills 1360c Robertsbridge Manuscript includes thirds in parallel motion (earliest surviving music written for keyboard) 1363 King John II (not Charles V - error on p. 69) grants Duchy of Burgundy as an appanage to Philip The Bold, (1404) 1364 Reign of King Charles V (1380) ------ Links are all completed before this point 1367 King John I (Aragon) Sought A Player For An Early, Primitive Clavicembalum 1370 Petrarch bequeaths a Giotto Madonna to his friend, the ruler of Padua 1377 Filippo Brunelleschi (1446) 1378 Lorenzo Ghiberti (1455) Papal Schism (1418) (Avignon Papacy, 1309) 1380 (King Charles V, 1364) 1382 Guild of Saint Luke (in Antwerp) began accepting tradesmen 1385 Roman Pope Urban VI Fled From Naples To Nocerina 1386 Donatello di Niccolò di Betto Bardi (1466) 1389 Year Depicted In Giovanni da Prato's "Paradiso degli Alberti" 1390c John Dunstable (1453) 1395 Parisian Police Forbade Minstrels To Mention Unity Or Disunity Of The Church In Their Songs 1397 Guillaume Dufay (1474) Giovanni Lambertacci (Padua) Informs Son-In-Law (University Of Pavia) That The Clavicembalum Had Been Invented (Francesco Landini, 1330c) 1400c Advanced Motets Written "Il Libro Dell'Arte" (Cennino Cennini) "Geographia" (Ptolemy) becomes available in Florence 1400 Dr. Hermannus Poll (Inventor Of Clavicembalum) Becomes Physician Of King Ruprecht Of The Palatinate (Southwestern Germany) 1401 Dr. Hermannus Poll Executed At Nuremburg For Treason Against The King 1402 Gian Galeazzo Visconti (Duke of Milan) dies of fever while invading Tuscanye 1404 Leon Battista Alberti (1472) Reign of John The Fearless (1419) (Philip the Bold) 1407c Filippo Brunelleschi and Donatello journey to Rome to study Classical Art 1408 "Sculpture of David" (Donatello) 1409 Council of Pisa attempts to install third Pope 1410c Conrad Paumann (1478) 1414 Council of Constance installed to eliminate Papal Schism 1417 Pope Martin V unifies papacy (1431) 1418 (Papal Schism, 1378) 1419 Reign of Philip The Good (1467) (Reign of John The Fearless, 1404) 1420 Filippo Brunelleschi begins work on Dome of Santa Maria del Fiore (1436) 1420c Filippo Brunelleschi (re-)discovers vanishing point, thus linear perspective with 1) Florentine Baptistery 2) Palazzo Vecchio 1425c Filippo Brunelleschi and Giovanni di Gherado da Prato exchange insulting sonnets 1425 "Gates of Paradise" (Lorenzo Ghiberti, east doors, second commission) 1426 "The Trinity" (Masaccio) 1435 "On Painting" (Leon Battista Alberti) repeats Protagoras that "Perception is truth." 1436 Pope Eugenius IV Consecrates Dome of Santa Maria del Fiore completed by Filippo Brunelleschi Guillaume Dufay performs motet Nuper rosarum flores at Dome's dedication 1439 Florentine Academy founded and led by Marsilio Ficino, supported by Cosimo de' Medici 1440 First attestation of the Dulce Melos (Henri-Arnault de Zwolle) 1445c Domenico da Piacenza publishes treatise on The Dance (not much is written about it) 1446 (Filippo Brunelleschi, 1377) 1447 Papacy of Pope Nicholas V (1455, error on page 109 stating his inauguration was on Christmas Day, 1449) 1449 Lorenzo de' Medici (1492) 1450c Antonio Squarcialupi most famous Italian organist in mid-15th century Movable-type printing press invented by Johannes Gutenberg 1451 Franchinus Gaffurius (1522) - index (and text) error by referring to him by both Franchino Gaffori and Franchinus Gaffurius 1452 Leonardo da Vinci (1519) "De Re Aedificatoria" (Treatise on Architecture, Leon Battista Alberti) (Gates of Paradise, 1425) 1452c Josquin des Prez (1521) 1453 Paolo Uccello weds, lays awake at night pondering perspective (John Dunstable, 1390c) 1453c First Gutenberg Bible printed (about 48 copies still exist) 1455 (Papacy of Pope Nicholas V, 1447) (Lorenzo Ghiberti, 1378) 1463 "Corpus Hermeticum" translated into Latin by Ficino 1466 Desiderius Erasmus (1536) Leonardo da Vinci apprentices in Andrea del Verrocchio's workshop (1476) (Donatello di Niccolí² di Betto Bardi, 1386) 1467 Reign of Charles The Bold (1477) (Reign of Philip The Good, 1419) 1468 Paolo del Pozzo Toscanelli draws meridian of sun's rays on the floor of Santa Maria del Fiore to determine Easter 1471 Papacy of Pope Sixtus IV (1484) 1472 (Leon Battista Alberti, 1404) 1473 Nicolaus Copernicus (1543) 1474 Paolo del Pozzo Toscanelli writes Fernam Martins and asserts viability of reaching the Orient by sailing west (Guillaume Dufay, 1397) 1475 Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni (1564) 1475c Johannes Tinctorus Chronicles English Musical Condition, In Which Composer John Dunstable Stood Forth 1476 Pope Sixtus IV announces offering of Indulgences for souls suffering in Purgatory (Leonardo da Vinci finishes apprenticeship in Andrea del Verrocchio's workship, 1466) 1477 (Reign of Charles The Bold, 1467) 1478 (Conrad Paumann, 1410c) 1480 Contract for organ at Lucca calls for both sharp and flat keys installed as options for the performer 1481c da Vinci leaves for Milan to present Ludovico Sforza with a lira da braccio from Lorenzo de' Medici 1482 "Musica Practica" (Bartolomeo Ramos de Pareja) supports Just Intonation. Euclid's "Elements" translated, uses geometry as a solution to irrational numbers 1482c Fazio Cardano translates John Peckham's "Perspectiva Communis" (1280c) and shares it with da Vinci 1483 Martin Luther (1546) 1484 Papacy of Pope Innocent VIIII (1492) (Papacy of Pope Sixtus IV, 1471) 1486 "Oration on the Dignity of Man" (Giovanni Pico della Mirandola) - 900 theses defended publiclyas the basis for all knowledge Pope Innocent VIII mortgages Papal Tiara to pay for his illegitimate son's (Franceschetto Cybo) lavish wedding to Lorenzo de' Medici's daughter 1486c Pope Innocent VIII establishes Papal bureau to sell favors and pardons at exorbitant prices (believe it or not) 1487 "Musices Opusculum" (Nicolaus Burtius) criticizes "Musica Practica" (page 9, e.g.) 1488c Viola Organista invented by da Vinci 1489c Plotinus translated into Latin by Ficino, who also publishes "De Vita Libri Tres" 1490c "Vitruvian Man" (da Vinci) accompanied by notes on the ancient Roman architect Vitruvius Adrian Willaert (Venezia, 1562) 1491 Henry VIIII (1547) 1492 "Theorica Musicae" (Gaffurius) Papacy of Pope Alexander VI (Rodrigo Borgia, 1503) (Papacy of Pope Innocent VIII, 1484) (Lorenzo de' Medici, 1449) 1496 "Practica Musicae" (Gaffurius) makes possible refererence to Meantone Temperament - date error on page 101 1498 "The Last Supper" (da Vinci), Refrectory of the Convent of Santa Maria della Grazie, Milan 1501 Cesare Borgia (son of Pope Alexander VI) holds "Ballet of the Chestnuts" in the Papal Palace 1503 (Papacy of Pope Alexander VI, 1492) 1506 "Mona Lisa" (da Vinci), La Louvre 1509 John Calvin (1564) Johannes Pfefferkorn publishes "Mirror of the Jews," ordering Jewish books destroyed (1553) 1511 Nicola Vicentino (Vicenza, c1576) Lira da Braccio (Giovanni d'Andrea (no biographical information found), Verona), Kunsthistorische Museum, Wien 1513 Machiavelli's first copy of "The Prince" Papacy of Pope Leo X (Giovanni di Lorenzo de' Medici, son of Lorenzo The Great <--- deserved for arrogance, 1521) 1514 Copernicus circulates manuscript among friends saying the Earth was not at the center of the cosmos Fra Bartolomeo's nude San Sebastian removed from the Convent of San Marco (Florence) due to women lusting after it 1517 Leo X names Johann Tetzel Commissioner of Indulgences for all of Germany Martin Luther nails The 95 Theses onto the door of Castle Church in Wittenberg, Saxony, beginning the Protestant Reformation Erasmus marvels that "splendid talents are forming all over the world" 1518 "What a century! What literature! How good it is to be alive!" (Letter written by Ulrich von Hí¼teen) 1519 "Quid Non Ebrietas" (Adrian Willaert) exposes flaws in Pythagorean Tuning and Just Intonation by an octave-leap after traveling the Circle of Fifths Ferdinand Magellan's crew sets sail around the world (1523) (Leonardo da Vinci, 1452) 1520 A French Instrument-Makers Guild claimed the right to make their own inlays and marquetry, incensing furniture makers 1521 (Josquin des Pres, 1452c) 1522 Pope Adrian VI wanted the Sistine Chapel ceiling stripped of nudes (Papacy of Pope Leo X, 1513) (Franchinus Gaffurius, 1451) 1523 "Toscanello In Musica" (Pietro Aron, Florence) makes definitive reference to Meantone Temperament Andreas Karlstadt (a Lutheran) sets aside church music, supports clerical matrimony, rejects baptism, and denounces education (Papacy of Pope Adrian VI, 1522) (4 of the original 55 on Magellan's Trinidad reach Spain, Tidore being the starting point of the final leg of the journey) 1531 "Avodat Hakkodesh" (Meir ben Ezekiel ibn Gabbai) says music creates "a magical resonance between earth and Heaven" 1533 Alfonso II d'Este (1597) First citation of the Lira da Braccio Giovanni Maria Lanfranco proposes equal temperament (flat fifths, sharp thirds) in "Scintille de Musica" 1534 John Calvin embraces Protestantism, forced to leave France Henry VIII's Act of Supremacy confiscated all lands belonging to the Holy See between 1536 and 1541, Church of England established 1535 Jan Beukelsz murders one of his (several) wives (error on page 123 says year was 1534) 1535c Silvio Cosini makes jerkin from human skin 1536 In "The Education of Children," also titled "On Civility in Children," Desiderius Erasmus (1466) calls this period "the worst age in history." 1538 Martin Luther praises complexity in music, calling anyone who does not understand it a "clodhopper." 1540 Jesuits (Society of Jesus) formed by Ignatius Loyola 1543 "On The Revolutions Of The Celestial Spheres" (Copernicus) (Nicolaus Copernicus, 1473) 1545 Council of Trent (1563) 1545c "Arezzo" (Bartolomeo Torri (spelling error on page 86)) 1546 (Martin Luther, 1483) 1547 (Henry VIII, 1491) 1550 "The Lives Of The Most Excellent Artists ...." (Vasari, 1st Edition) Theories of Temperament-to Music in 16th-Century Europe became much like Theories of Cartography-to-Mapmaking "De Subtilitate" (Girolamo Cardano) recommended scholars read love stories (et al) to rekindle their animal spirits 1551 Vicente Lusitano debates Nicola Vicentino before a court in Rome, over traditional musical views vs. radical ones 1553 Pope Julius III orders a burning of all copies of The Talmud 1555 Archicembolo, with six rows of keys, invented by Nicola Vicentino John Calvin turns Switzerland into an authoritarian state (1564) 1558 Gioseffo Zarlino describes tuning a lute using the mesolabium (attributed to Archimedes) 1562 Council of Trent urges ban on anything impure or lascivious in music (Adraen Willaert, 1490c) 1562c Cardinal Carlo Borromeo (Milan) induced composer Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina (Palestrina) to write "Missa Papa Marcelli" to win support of counterpoint 1563 (Council of Trent, 1545) 1563c Convocation of 1562/3 eliminated organs from churches (Protestants taking over Catholicism) 1564 Galileo Galilei (1642) (Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni, 1564)) (John Calvin, 1509) 1566 Carlo Gesualdo, Venosa (1613) 1568 "The Lives Of The Most Excellent Artists ...." (Vasari, 2nd Edition) 1570 Regnans in Excelsis (by Pope Pius V) declares Queen Elizabeth I a Heretic Giorgio Vasari covers up "The Trinity" (1426) 1576 Bubonic Plague kills nearly one-third (appr. 50,000) of Venezia (1577) 1576c Nicola Vicentino (1511) 1577 (Bubonic Plague in Venezia) 1581 Vincenzo Galilei mentions that the Viola Organista sounds like an ensemble of Viols 1589 (House of Valois, 1328) 1590 Carlo Gesualdo murders Donna Maria d'Avalos after catching her in flagrante delicto ------- End Dates Corrected To Here 1594 "Coelia" (William Percy) 1597 Cardinal Francesco Barberini (1679) 1598 Gian Lorenzo Bernini (1680) 1599 Queen Elizabeth gifts organ to Sultan Mehmet III of Constantinople (29 years after her excommunication) 1597 (Duke Alfonso II of Modena, 1533) - owned 52 harpsichords at his time of death 1606 Rene Descartes (1650) 1608 John Milton (1674) 1611 Woodcut of Josquin des Prez (copied from a lost oil painting) 1613 (Carlo Gesualdo, 1566) 1618 Fabio Colonna publishes "La Sambuca Lincea, Overo del'Musico Perfetto" 1698 "Eighth Sonnet" (William Shakespeare) 1618 "Temple Of Music" (Robert Fludd) Michael Praetorius calls the Hurdy-Gurdy 'the lyre of peasants and itinerant wenches' 1621 The Anatomy of Melancholy 1623 Blaise Pascal (1662) Pope Urban VIII Reign (1644) 1625 Charles I Reign (1649) 1637c "Harmonie Universelle" (Marin Mersenne) proposes 17-key, 19-key octaves to resolve wolf notes; uses intersecting triangles to determine string proportions 1640 Doni (mean) vs. Frescobaldi (equal) 1642 Issac Newton (1726) (Gaileo Galilei, 1564) 1644 Lords and Commons Ordinance calls for demolition of organs, monuments to idolatry and superstition, etc. 1644 (Pope Urban VIII Reign) 1649 (Charles I Reign) 1650 (Rene Descartes) 1655 Bartolomeo Cristofori (1731) 1660 Charles II Reign (1685) 1662 Royal Society Formed (Blaise Pascal) 1667 Jonathan Swift (1745) Paradise Lost 1674 (John Milton) 1679 (Cardinal Francesco Barberini) 1680 (Gian Lorenzo Bernini) 1683 Jean-Philippe Rameau (1764) 1684 Bernard Smith (split keys) vs. Renatus Harris 1685 George Frideric Handel (1759) Domenico Scarlatti (1757) Johann Sebastian Bach (1750) (Charles II Reign) 1687 "A Song for Saint Cecilia's Day" (John Dryden) 1700 Cristofori keeps and signs the musical inventory of the de Medici family - first hard evidence of a piano 1726 Gulliver's Travels (Grand Academy of Lagado) (Issac Newton) 1731 (Bartolomeo Cristofori) 1745 (Jonathan Swift) 1750 Handel buys split-key organ for Foundling Hospital (not 1768, error on page 19) (Johann Sebastian Bach) 1756 Ernst Florens Friedrich Chladni (1827) Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1791) 1757 (Domenico Scarlatti) 1759 (George Frideric Handel) 1764 (Jean-Philippe Rameau) 1785 "Art du Faiseur d'Instruments de Musique et Lutherie" (Diderot et d'Alambert, Paris) 1787 "Discoveries in the Theory of Sound" (Chladni) - grains of sans form geometric patterns on a plate that is bowed 1791 (Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart) 1819 "Ode On A Grecian Urn" (John Keats) 1822 "Hellas" (Percy Bysshe Shelley) 1827 (Ernst Florence Friedrich Chladni) 1857 "Les Fleurs du Mal" (Charles Baudelaire) 1874 John Ruskin impressed with Giotto's Frescoes 1914 Robert Frost writes to John Bartlett, "A sentence is a sound unto itself onto which other sounds called words may be strung." 1922 "Sonnets to Orpheus" (Rainer Maria Rilke, not "The Poet," error on page 58) 1942 "Notes Towards A Supreme Fiction" (Wallace Stevens) 1972 "The Thicket of Spring" (Paul Bowles) 1975 "The Painted Word" (Thomas Wolfe)
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